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hacker_culture [2021/01/02 02:39]
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hacker_culture [2022/03/11 11:00] (current)
ntnsndr
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 ## What is this course about? ## What is this course about?
  
-Are we all hackers now? This course ​chronicles the story of a kind of identity that began among geeky tinkerers and a murky criminal underground,​ only to be adopted by management consultants and CEOs. How has hacker culture helped form our technological lives? Do hacker formations like Wikileaks, Anonymous, and open-source software represent a new kind of politics, or a rejection of politics as we know it? How does this culture manage boundaries of access and power in the online economy? We will explore the contested figure of the hacker in the past, present, and science-fiction of the Internet.+Are we all hackers now? This course ​plays with a kind of identity that began among geeky tinkerers and a murky criminal underground,​ only to be adopted by management consultants and CEOs. How has hacker culture helped form our technological lives? Do hacker formations like Wikileaks, Anonymous, and open-source software represent a new kind of politics, or a rejection of politics as we know it? How does this culture manage boundaries of access and power in the online economy? We will explore the contested figure of the hacker in the past, present, and science-fiction of the Internet.
  
 This course includes assigned sources, class discussions,​ guest speakers, and a significant component of hands-on practice. All levels of technological prowess are welcome, but expect to learn some skills and to help teach others. Hacker culture is not a spectator sport. This course includes assigned sources, class discussions,​ guest speakers, and a significant component of hands-on practice. All levels of technological prowess are welcome, but expect to learn some skills and to help teach others. Hacker culture is not a spectator sport.
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 ## Instructor ## Instructor
  
-Nathan Schneider ​  ​ +Nathan Schneider ​("​Nathan"​ or "​Professor Schneider"​)  ​ 
-<​nathan.schneider@colorado.edu> ​   +<​nathan.schneider@colorado.edu>​ ([[:​email_etiquette|tips]])       
-Armory 1B24, meetings by appointment via email ([[:​email_etiquette|etiquette suggestions]])   +Armory 1B24 (if Covid ever ends!) ​   
 +Office hours Wednesdays 3-4 pm or by appointment ​  ​
 Website: [nathanschneider.info](https://​nathanschneider.info) Website: [nathanschneider.info](https://​nathanschneider.info)
  
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 ## What are the expectations?​ ## What are the expectations?​
  
-We will use two platforms to carry out our work for the course:+We will use three platforms to carry out our work for the course:
  
   * **[Canvas](https://​canvas.colorado.edu)** is an [open-source](https://​github.com/​instructure/​canvas-lms/​) learning management system developed by a for-profit company, Instructure. It is currently our campus'​s official LMS, and we will use it for a variety of tasks, from announcements to grading.   * **[Canvas](https://​canvas.colorado.edu)** is an [open-source](https://​github.com/​instructure/​canvas-lms/​) learning management system developed by a for-profit company, Instructure. It is currently our campus'​s official LMS, and we will use it for a variety of tasks, from announcements to grading.
 +  * **[Docs.plus](https://​docs.plus)** is a new, [open-source](https://​github.com/​nwspk/​docs.plus),​ collaborative document tool based on Etherpad Lite, which integrates documents and WebRTC-based video-chat. We'll use it to co-create resources for our course.
   * **[[Hypothesis]]** is a non-profit, [open-source](https://​github.com/​hypothesis/​) annotation platform that enables users to annotate the Web. Each week we'll use this to annotate and discuss the assigned sources.   * **[[Hypothesis]]** is a non-profit, [open-source](https://​github.com/​hypothesis/​) annotation platform that enables users to annotate the Web. Each week we'll use this to annotate and discuss the assigned sources.
  
 ### Objective 0: Contribute ### Objective 0: Contribute
  
-Students are responsible for contributing to both meatspace and virtual discussions. No attendance will be taken in class. However, showing up and participating in all scheduled meetings will help you get the most you can out of the courseand absence is not particularly compatible with participationMost weeks will follow a common pattern:+Computers count from zeroso hackers do too.
  
-  ​* **The first meeting**, plan to have completed the assigned sources for in-class discussion. Be ready to raise insights and questions from the sources. If we have a guest speaker, be prepared to ask excellent questions. Annotations on the sources ​are due at this time. One strategy is to take great notes on Hypothesis, print them out from your profile page, and bring them to class. +Students are responsible for contributing to discussions both in class and through annotations. No attendance will be taken in class. However, showing up and participating in all scheduled meetings will help you get the most you can out of the course, and absence is not particularly compatible with participation. Most weeks will follow a common pattern: 
-  * **The second meeting**, be ready for a more practice-oriented [DiscoTech](http://detroitprojectarchive.com/client/DDJC_amc2012.pdf.zip). Plan to have done some preparatory work on that week's Exploit---the skill we'll be learning together. We'll share our ideas, however preliminary,​ and we'll work on them in class, ​so plan to have screen device with you. + 
-   +  ​* **The first meeting**, plan to have completed the assigned sources for in-class discussion. Be ready to raise insights and questions from the sources. If we have a guest speaker, be prepared to ask excellent questions. Annotations on the assignments ​are due at this time. One strategy is to take great notes on Hypothesis, print them out from your profile page, and bring them to class. 
-Evaluation of in-class and online participation ​occurs twice---at the midterm and at the semester'​s end.+  * **The second meeting**, be ready for a more practice-oriented [DiscoTech](https://detroitcommunitytech.org/sites/default/​files/​librarypdfs/​how-to-discotech.pdf). Plan to have done some preparatory work on that week's Exploit---the skill we'll be learning together. We'll share our ideas, however preliminary,​ and we'll work on them in class
 + 
 +For successful annotationaim to add note or two to each reading, and go deep on at least one per week. Replies to fellow students count (although ​you won't see them in our Hypothesis group page). Over the course of the semester, aim for about 200 annotations total
 + 
 +Evaluation of annotations ​occurs twice---at the midterm and at the semester'​s end. Various bounties for in-class participation will present themselves throughout the semester.
  
 ### Objective 1: Hack ### Objective 1: Hack
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 Each week, each student should contribute an Exploit---a hack that addresses the week's topic in a creative way, reflecting technical ingenuity (though not necessarily expertise) and engagement with the week's sources. Exploits are due in Canvas by sunrise on Saturday morning. Each week, each student should contribute an Exploit---a hack that addresses the week's topic in a creative way, reflecting technical ingenuity (though not necessarily expertise) and engagement with the week's sources. Exploits are due in Canvas by sunrise on Saturday morning.
  
-Each Exploit should ​include a README text that explains the nature and rationale of the hack, engaging with at least one relevant assigned source. Exploits need not and should not be lengthy; their value is in the adventuresomeness of their thinking, not their girth. Also: do not break the law.+The format of the exploit can vary based on the assignment. They might be primarily visual or primarily textual, or code. Show, don't just tell---provide screenshots,​ source code, and other forms of evidence. If they are not self-explanatory, ​include a [README](https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​READMEtext that explains the nature and rationale of the hack.  
 + 
 +Exploits need not and should not be lengthy; their value is in the adventuresomeness of their thinking, not their girth. Just be sure to include [[engagement with assigned sources|engagement with at least one assigned source]] from the week. Also: do not break the law.
  
 ### Objective 2: Teach ### Objective 2: Teach
  
-We learn from each other. Each week, usually during the second meeting, a group of students will present to the class about a hacker skill related to that week's topic and Exploit assignment. This presentation will generally precede some time for a DiscoTech, so aim to offer something useful---a skill that fellow students ​may or may not choose to use as part of their own Exploits. Each presentation should be no more than 10 minutes long, with slides and/or a live demo. Slides should be turned in on Canvas before the class period of the presentation begins.+Hackers ​learn from each other. Each week, usually during the second meeting, a group of students will present to the class about a hacker skill related to that week's topic and Exploit assignment. This presentation will generally precede some time for a DiscoTech, so aim to offer something useful---a skill that fellow students ​can choose to use as part of their own Exploits. Each presentation should be no more than 10 minutes long, with slides and/or a live demo. Slides should be turned in on Canvas before the class period of the presentation begins.
  
-Following the presentation,​ student presenters will start the DiscoTech with an exercise for the class, using whatever format they like to invite participation,​ collaboration,​ and sharing of ideas.+Following the presentation,​ student presenters will start the DiscoTech with an exercise for the class, using whatever format they like to invite participation,​ collaboration,​ and the sharing of ideas.
  
 ### Objective 3: Master ### Objective 3: Master
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 If the hack in question is of questionable legality, write as an FBI agent, perhaps. If the hack is just a brilliant piece of technology, write as a stiff for a big computer company trying to figure out how to capitalize on it. In any case, with clear language and documented research, explain the nature of the hack, its significance,​ and a recommendation for what your organization should do about it. If the hack in question is of questionable legality, write as an FBI agent, perhaps. If the hack is just a brilliant piece of technology, write as a stiff for a big computer company trying to figure out how to capitalize on it. In any case, with clear language and documented research, explain the nature of the hack, its significance,​ and a recommendation for what your organization should do about it.
  
-The final product itself should be a convincing hoax in the voice and visual character of the organization it supposedly represents. For examples of what this could look like, peruse ​Imperva'​s ​[Hacker Intelligence Reports](http://www.imperva.com/DefenseCenter/HackerIntelligenceReports) or _Wired_'​s [Hack Briefs](https://​www.wired.com/​tag/​hack-brief/​).+The final product itself should be a convincing hoax in the voice and visual character of the organization it supposedly represents. For examples of what this could look like, peruse ​reports from [Cisco](https://www.cisco.com/c/en/​us/​products/​security/​cybersecurity-reports.html) or [FireEye](https://​www.fireeye.com/​current-threats/​threat-intelligence-reports.html)or _Wired_'​s [Hack Briefs](https://​www.wired.com/​tag/​hack-brief/​).
  
 This project includes a built-in debugging and revision process, as well as a one-minute presentation on the last day of class. This project includes a built-in debugging and revision process, as well as a one-minute presentation on the last day of class.
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 ### Bounties ### Bounties
  
-Grades are not especially conducive to hacking, but we need some equivalent in order for this course to be legible to the university. Therefore, work will be rewarded with bounties. These are functionally the same as grades, but perhaps giving them a different name will prevent them from killing the learning process in the way that grades normally do. The maximum bounty awarded for each portion of the course is as follows:+Grades are not especially conducive to hacking, but we need some equivalent in order for this course to be legible to the university. Therefore, work will be rewarded with [bounties](https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Bug_bounty_program). These are functionally the same as grades, but perhaps giving them a different name will prevent them from killing the learning process in the way that grades normally do. The maximum bounty awarded for each portion of the course is as follows:
  
   * Objective 0: 20 points   * Objective 0: 20 points
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     * geeky enthusiasm, insight, and attention to others in class (10 points)     * geeky enthusiasm, insight, and attention to others in class (10 points)
   * Objective 1: 30 points   * Objective 1: 30 points
-    * clear explanation along with supporting ​files in open formats+    * clear explanation ​of the Exploit ​along with supporting ​evidence
     * creative implementation and stretching of skills     * creative implementation and stretching of skills
-    * sophisticated engagement with at least one of the module'​s assigned sources+    * sophisticated ​[[engagement ​with assigned sources|engagement]] ​with at least one of the module'​s assigned sources
   * Objective 2: 20 points   * Objective 2: 20 points
     * accessible and fun introduction to a skill and its significance (5 points)     * accessible and fun introduction to a skill and its significance (5 points)
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       * 1,​800-to-2,​000-word length, written clearly and with instructive illustrations       * 1,​800-to-2,​000-word length, written clearly and with instructive illustrations
       * comprehension of the hack and convincing, accessible analysis of it       * comprehension of the hack and convincing, accessible analysis of it
-      * impressive and documented research with both [[:​scholarly_sources|scholarly]] and primary sources +      * impressive and documented research with both [[:​scholarly_sources|scholarly]] and primary sources, [[:​citation_standards|appropriately cited]] 
-      * sophisticated engagement with at least two assigned sources +      * sophisticated ​[[engagement with assigned sources|engagement with at least two assigned sources]] 
-  * one-minute presentation,​ with an instructive ​slide, on the last day of class (5 points)+    * one-minute presentation,​ with a compelling ​slide, on the last day of class (5 points)
  
 Bounties will be compiled in (more or less) real time on Canvas for easy access. The final grade will be calculated by adding up the bounties each student has earned. Based on the stated bounty structure, grades will be awarded as follows: A (94-100), A- (90-93), B+ (87-89), B (83-86), B- (80-82), C+ (77-79), C (73-76), C- (70-72), D+ (67-69), D (63-66), D- (60-62), F (0-59). Bounties will be compiled in (more or less) real time on Canvas for easy access. The final grade will be calculated by adding up the bounties each student has earned. Based on the stated bounty structure, grades will be awarded as follows: A (94-100), A- (90-93), B+ (87-89), B (83-86), B- (80-82), C+ (77-79), C (73-76), C- (70-72), D+ (67-69), D (63-66), D- (60-62), F (0-59).
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 ### Terms and conditions ### Terms and conditions
  
-  ​* This syllabus is a living document and may be revised during the course. The current, binding form will be maintained on Canvas, and any changes will be explained in a Canvas announcement. +* This syllabus is a living document and may be revised during the course. The current, binding form will be maintained on Canvas, and any changes will be explained in a Canvas announcement. 
-  * We respect one another'​s privacy and freedom to explore. Content shared in the course, in class or online, will not be shared beyond it without permission. +* Turn in all assigned work using open formats, rather than those that require proprietary software. These include .txt, .md, .pdf, .odt, .docx, .svg, etc. Examples of closed, proprietary formats include .psd, .pages, and .keynote. 
-  * Use of laptops and other screen devices is not permitted in class, except during DiscoTech sessions or for purposes of accessibility. Such devices are [[screen_devices|likely]] to interfere with your learning experience and that of students around you. Most class discussions,​ unless otherwise stated, not require or be improved by them. +* We respect one another'​s privacy and freedom to explore. Content shared in the course, in class or online, will not be shared beyond it without permission. 
-  ​* We adhere to basic [[university policies]] regarding accessibility and academic integrity; we take responsibility for understanding them and the relevant procedures. *Verbum sat sapienti est.*+* We adhere to basic [[:university policies]] regarding accessibility and academic integrity; we take responsibility for understanding them and the relevant procedures. *Verbum sat sapienti est.*
  
 ## Schedule ## Schedule
  
-Each week's readings are due at p.m. that Tuesday and Exploits are due at Saturday at 9 a.m. All other due dates are at p.m. Mountain Time:+Each week's readings are due at p.m. that Tuesday and Exploits are due on Saturday at 9 a.m. All other due dates are at p.m. Mountain Time:
  
-  * Project proposal: April 2 +  * Project proposal: April 1 
-  * Project beta version: April 21 +  * Project beta version: April 20 
-  * Debugging comments: April 23 +  * Debugging comments: April 22 
-  * Final project: April 30+  * Final presentations:​ April 27 
 +  * Final project: April 29
  
 ## What topics will be covered? ## What topics will be covered?
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   * Edward Snowden, _Permanent Record_ (Metropolitan Books, 2019): Part I   * Edward Snowden, _Permanent Record_ (Metropolitan Books, 2019): Part I
   * Steven Levy, _Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution_ [chapters 1 and 2](https://​www.gutenberg.org/​ebooks/​729) (1984)   * Steven Levy, _Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution_ [chapters 1 and 2](https://​www.gutenberg.org/​ebooks/​729) (1984)
-  * The Mentor"[The Conscience ​of a Hacker (aka Hacker Manifesto)](http://phrack.org/issues/7/3.html),"​ _Phrack_ 1, no. 7 (1986)+  * Fabrice Florin_[Hackers, Wizards ​of the Electronic Age](https://archive.org/details/Hackers_201808)_1st Hackers Conference ​(1985)
  
-**Exploit: ​Compose a testimony or manifesto.** Using appropriate typography ​and layout, ​or posting ​it to an appropriate place, create ​testimony or [manifesto](https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/​archive/​2014/​06/​manifestos-a-manifesto-the-10-things-all-manifestos-need/​372135/) that introduces your hacker philosophy ​to the worldIdentify yourself any way you like or not at all. Seek to recruit, warn, alienate, terrify, or inform readers. Let the medium be part of the message.+**Exploit: ​Do something worthwhile with an old machine.** Dig up an old, obsolete machine ​and have fun with it. What's lying around your house or dorm collecting dust? What neat software have most people forgotten about? What can it do that a fancy smartphone can't? Pay a [visit](http://mediaarchaeologylab.com/visit/) to the Media Archaeology Lab on campus and play aroundShow us what you can do with a neglected tool. 
 +  ​
  
 ### 2. White, black, gray ### 2. White, black, gray
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   * Edward Snowden, _Permanent Record_ (Metropolitan Books, 2019): Part II   * Edward Snowden, _Permanent Record_ (Metropolitan Books, 2019): Part II
   * Charlton McIlwain, _Black Software: The Internet and Racial Justice, from the AfroNet to Black Lives Matter_ (Oxford University Press, 2020): {{:​lib:​mcilwain-blacksoftware.pdf|28-43,​ 55-58}}   * Charlton McIlwain, _Black Software: The Internet and Racial Justice, from the AfroNet to Black Lives Matter_ (Oxford University Press, 2020): {{:​lib:​mcilwain-blacksoftware.pdf|28-43,​ 55-58}}
 +  * The Mentor, "[The Conscience of a Hacker (aka Hacker Manifesto)](http://​phrack.org/​issues/​7/​3.html),"​​ _Phrack_ 1, no. 7 (1986)
  
-**Exploit: ​Practice self-optimization.** Work on your development as a hacker by hacking yourself. Measure some aspect of your life, routine, mind, or body, and test strategies for optimizing ​it. For inspirationconsider resources like _[Lifehacker](http://lifehacker.com/)_ and [Hacker News](https:​//news.ycombinator.com/). Produce data based on your experiment and present it so the rest of us can better hack ourselves.+**Exploit: ​Compose a testimony or manifesto.** Using appropriate typography and layout, or posting ​it to an appropriate placecreate a testimony or [manifesto](https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2014/​06/​manifestos-a-manifesto-the-10-things-all-manifestos-need/​372135/) that introduces ​your hacker philosophy to the world. Identify yourself any way you like or not at all. Seek to recruit, warn, alienate, terrify, or inform readers. Let the medium be part of the message.
  
  
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   * Edward Snowden, _Permanent Record_ (Metropolitan Books, 2019): Part III   * Edward Snowden, _Permanent Record_ (Metropolitan Books, 2019): Part III
 +  * Brian Knappenberger,​ _[The Internet'​s Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Swartz](https://​archive.org/​details/​TheInternetsOwnBoyTheStoryOfAaronSwartz)_ (2014)
   * Gabriella Coleman, "[The Public Interest Hack](https://​limn.it/​articles/​the-public-interest-hack/​),"​ _limn_ (February 2017)   * Gabriella Coleman, "[The Public Interest Hack](https://​limn.it/​articles/​the-public-interest-hack/​),"​ _limn_ (February 2017)
  
-**Exploit: Set a valuable piece of information free.** Lots of data and knowledge are caught up in places that aren't accessible---in offline archives, behind paywalls or private intranets, trapped in someone'​s mind. Following the hacker dictum "​information wants to be free," let something loose in a way that will facilitate its flow. Post it online in an appropriate spot, or share it with those who will, or find a liberating offline place for it, like a flyer or a megaphone. Be sure to explain what makes the information valuable and how what you do with it is meaningfully liberating.+**Exploit: Set a valuable piece of information free.** Lots of data and knowledge are caught up in places that aren't accessible---in offline archives, behind paywalls or private intranets, trapped in someone'​s mind. Following the hacker dictum ​that "​information wants to be free," let something loose in a way that will facilitate its flow. Post it online in an appropriate spot, or share it with those who will, or find a liberating offline place for it, like a flyer or a megaphone. Be sure to explain what makes the information valuable and how what you do with it is meaningfully liberating.
  
  
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   * Gabriella Coleman, "The Tale of Two Legal Regimes"​ in _[Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking](http://​gabriellacoleman.org/​Coleman-Coding-Freedom.pdf)_ (Princeton University Press, 2013)   * Gabriella Coleman, "The Tale of Two Legal Regimes"​ in _[Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking](http://​gabriellacoleman.org/​Coleman-Coding-Freedom.pdf)_ (Princeton University Press, 2013)
-  * Lana Swartz, "​[Blockchain Dreams: Imagining ​ Techno- Economic Alternatives After Bitcoin](http://​llaannaa.com/​papers/​Swartz_Blockchain_Dreams.pdf),"​ in _Another Economy Is Possible: Culture and Economy in a Time of Crisis_, ed. Manuel Castells, 82-105 (Polity, 2017) +  * Lana Swartz, "​[Blockchain Dreams: Imagining Techno-Economic Alternatives After Bitcoin](http://​llaannaa.com/​papers/​Swartz_Blockchain_Dreams.pdf),"​ in _Another Economy Is Possible: Culture and Economy in a Time of Crisis_, ed. Manuel Castells, 82-105 (Polity, 2017) 
-  * Nathan Schneider, "[Decentralization:​ An Incomplete Ambition](https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/​10.1080/​17530350.2019.1589553)," ​_Journal of Cultural Economy_ ​(April 172019)+  * Laurie Penny, "[Four Days Trapped at Sea With Crypto’s Nouveau Riche](https://breakermag.com/trapped-at-sea-with-cryptos-nouveau-riche/​)," ​_Breakermag_ ​(December 52018)
  
-**Exploit: Devise a tool that disrupts a gatekeeper.** What is in the way of something worth doing? What systems do you encounter that are needlessly cumbersome or inefficient?​ Who is leeching profits without contributing any useful value? Come up with an idea---you don't have to implement it, especially if it's risky---that would clear the way. Bypass a government or skirt around a middleman. Get the goods.+**Exploit: Devise a tool that disrupts a gatekeeper.** What is in the way of something worth doing? What systems do you encounter that are needlessly cumbersome or inefficient?​ Who is leeching profits without contributing any useful value? Come up with an idea---you don't have to implement it, especially if it's risky---that would clear the way. Bypass a government, master the university bureaucracy, ​or skirt around a corporate ​middleman. Get the goods.
  
  
 ### 5. School ### 5. School
  
-  * Eric Steven Raymond, "[How to Become a Hacker](http://catb.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html)" (2001-2015)+  * Paul Ford, "[What Is Code?](https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2015-paul-ford-what-is-code/​)" ​_Bloomberg Businessweek_ ​(June 11, 2015)
   * Eric Steven Raymond, "[How To Ask Questions The Smart Way](http://​catb.org/​~esr/​faqs/​smart-questions.html)"​ (2001-2014)   * Eric Steven Raymond, "[How To Ask Questions The Smart Way](http://​catb.org/​~esr/​faqs/​smart-questions.html)"​ (2001-2014)
     * A sort-of reply: Julia Evans, "[How to Ask Good Questions](http://​jvns.ca/​blog/​good-questions/​)"​ (December 31, 2016)     * A sort-of reply: Julia Evans, "[How to Ask Good Questions](http://​jvns.ca/​blog/​good-questions/​)"​ (December 31, 2016)
-  * Shawna Scott, "[The Code School-Industrial Complex](https://modelviewculture.com/pieces/the-code-school-industrial-complex)," _Model View Culture_ (January 212015)+  * _[DiscoTech](https://detroitcommunitytech.org/sites/default/​files/​librarypdfs/​how-to-discotech.pdf)_Detroit Digital Justice Coalitionno. 4 (summer 2012) 
  
 **Exploit: Teach yourself a bit of a computer language and make a program that does something neat.** It might seem scary or fancy, but it's completely possible to start learning how to code online, and lots of hackers are more or less self-taught. Whatever you know already, use this Exploit to learn a new programming language or trick. You can do something as simple as the classic "​[Hello World!](https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Hello_world_program)"​ or [make your own chatbot](https://​chatbotlab.io/​). Try the elegant language [Python on CodeAcademy](https://​www.codecademy.com/​learn/​learn-python),​ or get visual with [JavaScript at Khan Academy](https://​www.khanacademy.org/​computing/​computer-programming/​programming),​ or play with [MIT's Scratch](https://​scratch.mit.edu/​). The [Hour of Code project](https://​code.org/​learn) has tons of activity ideas on top of that. **Exploit: Teach yourself a bit of a computer language and make a program that does something neat.** It might seem scary or fancy, but it's completely possible to start learning how to code online, and lots of hackers are more or less self-taught. Whatever you know already, use this Exploit to learn a new programming language or trick. You can do something as simple as the classic "​[Hello World!](https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Hello_world_program)"​ or [make your own chatbot](https://​chatbotlab.io/​). Try the elegant language [Python on CodeAcademy](https://​www.codecademy.com/​learn/​learn-python),​ or get visual with [JavaScript at Khan Academy](https://​www.khanacademy.org/​computing/​computer-programming/​programming),​ or play with [MIT's Scratch](https://​scratch.mit.edu/​). The [Hour of Code project](https://​code.org/​learn) has tons of activity ideas on top of that.
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   * Gabriella Coleman, "​[Phreaks,​ Hackers, and Trolls: The Politics of Transgression and Spectacle](http://​gabriellacoleman.org/​wp-content/​uploads/​2012/​08/​Coleman-Phreaks-Hackers-Trolls.pdf),"​ in _The Social Media Reader_ (New York University Press, 2012)   * Gabriella Coleman, "​[Phreaks,​ Hackers, and Trolls: The Politics of Transgression and Spectacle](http://​gabriellacoleman.org/​wp-content/​uploads/​2012/​08/​Coleman-Phreaks-Hackers-Trolls.pdf),"​ in _The Social Media Reader_ (New York University Press, 2012)
  
-**Exploit: Create an identity.** Who you appear to be can change what you can do. Try on a new online mask---on a social network, for instance, or across a few. Form a profile, take on a character, and see what happens. What can you do that you might not otherwise try?+**Exploit: Create an identity.** Who you appear to be can change what you can do. Try on a new online mask---on a social network, for instance, or across a few. Form a profile, take on a character, and see what happens. What can you do that you might not otherwise try? Share screenshots or other documentation of what your identity allowed you to do.
  
  
 ### 7. Remix ### 7. Remix
  
-  * Lawrence Lessig, "[\<​free_culture\>​](https://randomfoo.net/​oscon/​2002/​lessig/​)," ​O.Reilly Open Source Conference ​(July 242002)---watch Flash presentation if you can+  * Lawrence Lessig, "[Laws that Choke Creativity](https://www.youtube.com/watch?​v=7Q25-S7jzgs)," ​TED (November 152007)
   * Donna Haraway, "[A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century](https://​web.archive.org/​web/​20120214194015/​http://​www.stanford.edu/​dept/​HPS/​Haraway/​CyborgManifesto.html),"​ in _Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature_ (Routledge, 1991)   * Donna Haraway, "[A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century](https://​web.archive.org/​web/​20120214194015/​http://​www.stanford.edu/​dept/​HPS/​Haraway/​CyborgManifesto.html),"​ in _Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature_ (Routledge, 1991)
   * "​[Shenzhen:​ The Silicon Valley of Hardware](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=SGJ5cZnoodY),"​ _Wired_ (2016)   * "​[Shenzhen:​ The Silicon Valley of Hardware](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=SGJ5cZnoodY),"​ _Wired_ (2016)
  
-**Exploit: Make a remix.** Take something out there and turn it into something else. Mash up music or video into something surprising, or rewrite a book. Make some fan-fiction. Save a website'​s HTML code to your computer and mess with it. Explore the possibilities of free culture, or what culture would be like if it were really free. Show us what you can come up with.+**Exploit: Make a remix.** Take something out there and turn it into something else. Mash up music or video into something surprising, or rewrite a book. Create a bit of knock-off *shanzhai*. Make some fan-fiction. Save a website'​s HTML code to your computer and mess with it. Explore the possibilities of free culture, or what culture would be like if it were really free. Show us what you can come up with
 + 
 + 
 +### 8. Play 
 + 
 +* Johan Huizinga, "​Nature and Significance of Play as a Cultural Phenomenon,"​ in _[Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture](http://​art.yale.edu/​file_columns/​0000/​1474/​homo_ludens_johan_huizinga_routledge_1949_.pdf)_ (Routledge, 1949 [1944]) 
 +* Colin Milburn, "​[Introduction:​ All Your Base](https://​read.dukeupress.edu/​books/​book/​2523/​chapter/​1255204/​All-Your-Base),"​ in _Respawn: Gamers, Hackers, and Technogenic Life_ (Duke University Press, 2018) 
 +* Ezra Klein, "[I build a world with fantasy master N.K. Jemisin](https://​radiopublic.com/​Ezra/​s1!8ed6a),"​ _The Ezra Klein Show_ (August 26, 2018) 
 + 
 +**Exploit: Build a world.** In the spirit of Jemisin'​s world-building,​ hack an imaginary world that doesn'​t exist yet. Make a map, tell a story, provide a timeline, or offer some other picture of your world. What does this world allow you to explore that the "​real"​ world does not? What is the same, and what is different? What does that world reveal about this one? [These "​laws"​](https://​www.raphkoster.com/​games/​laws-of-online-world-design/​the-laws-of-online-world-design/​) from a practicing game designer might help.
  
  
-### 8. Craft+### 9. Craft
  
 +  * Douglas R. Hofstadter, "​[Introduction:​ A Logico-Musical Offering](https://​archive.org/​details/​GEBen_201706/​page/​n9/​mode/​2up),"​ in _Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid_ (1979)
   * Paul Graham, "​[Hackers and Painters](http://​www.paulgraham.com/​hp.html)"​ (May 2003)   * Paul Graham, "​[Hackers and Painters](http://​www.paulgraham.com/​hp.html)"​ (May 2003)
   * Gabriella Coleman, "The Craft and Craftiness of Hacking,"​ in _[Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking](http://​gabriellacoleman.org/​Coleman-Coding-Freedom.pdf)_ (Princeton University Press, 2013)   * Gabriella Coleman, "The Craft and Craftiness of Hacking,"​ in _[Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking](http://​gabriellacoleman.org/​Coleman-Coding-Freedom.pdf)_ (Princeton University Press, 2013)
-  * Jay Kirby and Lori Emerson, "[As If, or, Using Media Archaeology to Reimagine Past, Present, and Future: An Interview with Lori Emerson](http://​ijoc.org/​index.php/​ijoc/​article/​view/​4764),"​ _International Journal of Communication_ 10 (June 2016) 
  
-**Exploit: ​Do something worthwhile with an old machine.** Dig up an old, obsolete machine and have fun with itWhat's lying around ​your house or our campus collecting dust? What neat software have most people forgotten about? What can it do that a fancy smartphone can't? Pay a [visit](http://mediaarchaeologylab.com/visit/) to the Media Archaeology Lab on campus ​and play around. Show us what you can do with a neglected tool.+**Exploit: ​Practice self-optimization.** Work on your development as a hacker by hacking yourselfSee math where you didn't before. Measure some aspect of your life, routine, mind, or body, and test strategies for optimizing ​it. For inspiration,​ consider resources like _[Lifehacker](http://lifehacker.com/)_ and [Hacker News](https://​news.ycombinator.com/). What are you optimizing for, and why? Produce data based on your experiment ​and present it so the rest of us can better hack ourselves.
  
  
-### 9. Order+### 10. Order
  
-  * Nathan Schneider, "​[Admins,​ Mods, and Benevolent Dictators for Life: The Implicit Feudalism of Online Communities](https://​osf.io/​epgwr/?​view_only=11c9e93011df4865951f2056a64f5938),"​ working draft 
   * Yochai Benkler, "[Peer Production, the Commons, and the Future of the Firm](https://​doi.org/​10.1177/​1476127016652606),"​ _Strategic Organization_ 15, no. 2 (May 2017)   * Yochai Benkler, "[Peer Production, the Commons, and the Future of the Firm](https://​doi.org/​10.1177/​1476127016652606),"​ _Strategic Organization_ 15, no. 2 (May 2017)
 +  * Nathan Schneider, "[The Tyranny of Openness: What Happened to Peer Production?​](https://​ntnsndr.in/​tyranny),"​ _Feminist Media Studies_ (2021)
   * Coraline Ada Ehmke, "[The Dehumanizing Myth of Meritocracy](https://​modelviewculture.com/​pieces/​the-dehumanizing-myth-of-the-meritocracy),"​ _Model View Culture_ (May 19, 2015)   * Coraline Ada Ehmke, "[The Dehumanizing Myth of Meritocracy](https://​modelviewculture.com/​pieces/​the-dehumanizing-myth-of-the-meritocracy),"​ _Model View Culture_ (May 19, 2015)
  
-**Exploit: Submit a bug report or feature request ​to an open-source project.** Critical to any open-source project is the participation of the community. For those of us who are not amazing software engineers, one of the best (and most rewarding) ways of participating is through feedback. Identify which software that you use is open-source---Canvas and Hypothesis are a start---and try to find where the developers communicate with users. (It's usually in the Issues section of the project'​s GitHub page.) Write to them with a bug you've noticed or a feature you'd like to see. Keep in mind Raymond'​s essay on questions to help ensure your recommendation is usefully phrased and well researched.+**Exploit: Submit a bug report or question ​to an open-source project.** Critical to any open-source project is the participation of the community. For those of us who are not amazing software engineers, one of the best (and most rewarding) ways of participating is through feedback. Identify which software that you use is open-source---Canvas, Docs.plus, ​and Hypothesis are a start---and try to find where the developers communicate with users. (It's usually in the Issues section of the project'​s GitHub page.) Write to them with a bug you've noticed or a feature you'd like to see. Keep in mind Raymond'​s essay on questions to help ensure your recommendation is usefully phrased and well researched.
  
  
-### 10. Anonymity+### 11. Anonymity
  
   * _[We Are Legion: The Story of the Hacktivists](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=-zwDhoXpk90)_,​ directed by Brian Knappenberger (2012)   * _[We Are Legion: The Story of the Hacktivists](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=-zwDhoXpk90)_,​ directed by Brian Knappenberger (2012)
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-### 11. Security culture+### 12. Security culture
  
   * Priyanka Kaura, "​[Imagine Otherwise: Simone Browne on Resisting Surveillance & Creative Collaborations](https://​ideasonfire.net/​podcast/​9-simone-browne/​),"​ _Imagine Otherwise_ (May 4, 2016)   * Priyanka Kaura, "​[Imagine Otherwise: Simone Browne on Resisting Surveillance & Creative Collaborations](https://​ideasonfire.net/​podcast/​9-simone-browne/​),"​ _Imagine Otherwise_ (May 4, 2016)
-  * Sophie Toupin, "​[Gesturing Towards '​Anti-Colonial Hacking'​ and Its Infrastructure](http://​peerproduction.net/​issues/​issue-9-alternative-internets/​peer-reviewed-papers/​anti-colonial-hacking/​),"​ _Journal of Peer Production_ 9 (2016) 
   * Mattathias Schwartz, "​[Cyberwar for Sale](http://​www.nytimes.com/​2017/​01/​04/​magazine/​cyberwar-for-sale.html),"​ _The New York Times Magazine_ (January 4, 2017)   * Mattathias Schwartz, "​[Cyberwar for Sale](http://​www.nytimes.com/​2017/​01/​04/​magazine/​cyberwar-for-sale.html),"​ _The New York Times Magazine_ (January 4, 2017)
 +  * Andy Greenberg, "[The Confessions of Marcus Hutchins, the Hacker Who Saved the Internet](https://​www.wired.com/​story/​confessions-marcus-hutchins-hacker-who-saved-the-internet/​),"​ _Wired_ (May 12, 2020)
  
-**Exploit: Audit your communication practices and identify improvements.** Review some of your regular practices, digital and otherwise, and locate potential security vulnerabilities. Do some [research](https://​www.isaca.org/​Journal/​archives/​2010/​Volume-1/​Pages/​Performing-a-Security-Risk-Assessment1.aspx) about the [nature](http://​webkay.robinlinus.com/​) of potential [threats](https://​panopticlick.eff.org/​) and how they might be mitigated. Check out software listed at [PRISM Break](http://​prism-break.org/​),​ if the dangers are digital. Try out a few patches, and determine whether they'​re worth the trouble.+**Exploit: Audit your communication practices and identify improvements.** Review some of your regular practices, digital and otherwise, and locate potential security vulnerabilities. Do some [research](https://​www.isaca.org/​Journal/​archives/​2010/​Volume-1/​Pages/​Performing-a-Security-Risk-Assessment1.aspx) about the [nature](http://​webkay.robinlinus.com/​) of potential [threats](https://​panopticlick.eff.org/​) and how they might be mitigated. Check out software listed at [AlternativeTo](https://​alternativeto.net/​platform/​all/?​license=opensource), ​[PRISM Break](http://​prism-break.org/​), ​or [PrivacyTools](https://​www.privacytools.io/​) ​if the dangers are digital. Try out a few patches, and determine whether they'​re worth the trouble.
  
  
-### 12. Weary giants+### 13. Weary giants
  
-  * John Perry Barlow, "[A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace](https://www.eff.org/cyberspace-independence)"​ (February 81996) +  * Neal Stephenson, "[The Great Simoleon Caper](http://content.time.com/time/​subscriber/​printout/​0,8816,982610,00.html)" (March 1, 1995)
-  * Yu-Tang HsiaoShu-Yang LinAudrey Tang, Darshana Narayanan, and Claudina Sarahe, "​[vTaiwan:​ An Empirical Study of Open Consultation Process in Taiwan](https://​files.osf.io/​v1/​resources/​xyhft/​providers/​osfstorage/​5b3c5c85987be0001299ec93?​action=download&​version=1&​direct)" (2018)+
   * Pia Mancini, "​[Cities as Open Collectives](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=S74uMkmNdh0),"​ OuiShare Fest (2017)   * Pia Mancini, "​[Cities as Open Collectives](https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=S74uMkmNdh0),"​ OuiShare Fest (2017)
-  * Nathan Schneider, "[Why the Tech Elite Is Getting Behind Universal Basic Income](https://​www.vice.com/read/something-for-everyone-0000546-v22n1)," ​_Vice_ ​(January 62015)+  * Andrew Leonard, "[How Taiwan’s Unlikely Digital Minister Hacked ​the Pandemic](https://​www.wired.com/story/how-taiwans-unlikely-digital-minister-hacked-the-pandemic/​)," ​_Wired_ ​(July 232020)
  
-**Exploit: Improve or subvert a government process.** Look for old-world inefficiencies,​ combat them with hacks. Where are governments needlessly burdening people? How do bureaucratic processes waste time and resources? Apply your hacking skills toward devising a strategy that solves the problem, whether those in power like it or not.+**Exploit: Improve or subvert a government process.** Look for old-world inefficiencies,​ combat them with hacks. Where are governments needlessly burdening people? How do bureaucratic processes waste time and resources? ​[Explore the field of civic tech](https://​civictech.guide/​). ​Apply your hacking skills toward devising a strategy that solves the problem, whether those in power like it or not.
  
  
-### 13. Gentrification+### 14. Gentrification
  
-  * Mark Zuckerberg, "[The Hacker Way](https://​www.wired.com/​2012/​02/​zuck-letter/​)," ​_Wired_ ​(February 1, 2012)+  * Mark Zuckerberg, "[The Hacker Way](https://​money.cnn.com/​2012/​02/​01/technology/​zuckerberg_ipo_letter/​index.htm)," ​_CNN Money_ ​(February 1, 2012)
   * Alessandro Delfanti and Johan Söderberg, "​[Repurposing the hacker: Three cycles of recuperation in the evolution of hacking and capitalism](http://​www.ephemerajournal.org/​contribution/​repurposing-hacker-three-cycles-recuperation-evolution-hacking-and-capitalism),"​ _Ephemera_ 18, no. 3 (2018)   * Alessandro Delfanti and Johan Söderberg, "​[Repurposing the hacker: Three cycles of recuperation in the evolution of hacking and capitalism](http://​www.ephemerajournal.org/​contribution/​repurposing-hacker-three-cycles-recuperation-evolution-hacking-and-capitalism),"​ _Ephemera_ 18, no. 3 (2018)
   * Virginia Heffernan, "[Now That Tech Runs the World, Let's Retire the Hacker Ideal](https://​www.wired.com/​story/​now-that-tech-runs-the-world-lets-retire-the-hacker-ideal/​),"​ _Wired_ (January 31, 2018)   * Virginia Heffernan, "[Now That Tech Runs the World, Let's Retire the Hacker Ideal](https://​www.wired.com/​story/​now-that-tech-runs-the-world-lets-retire-the-hacker-ideal/​),"​ _Wired_ (January 31, 2018)
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-### 14. Mastery+### 15. Mastery
  
 Debug the final project with peers and conclude the course. Debug the final project with peers and conclude the course.
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   * [Hack_Curio](https://​hackcur.io/​)   * [Hack_Curio](https://​hackcur.io/​)
   * [Hacker News](https://​news.ycombinator.com/​)   * [Hacker News](https://​news.ycombinator.com/​)
-  * _[Hackernoon](https://​hackernoon.com/​)_+  * _[Hacker News, The](https://​thehackernews.com/​)_ 
 +  * _[Hacker Noon](https://​hackernoon.com/​)_
   * _[Krebs on Security](http://​krebsonsecurity.com/​)_   * _[Krebs on Security](http://​krebsonsecurity.com/​)_
   * _[Lifehacker](http://​lifehacker.com/​)_   * _[Lifehacker](http://​lifehacker.com/​)_
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   * [Textfiles](http://​www.textfiles.com/​directory.html)   * [Textfiles](http://​www.textfiles.com/​directory.html)
   * [ThreatLevel](http://​www.wired.com/​threatlevel/​) at _WIRED_   * [ThreatLevel](http://​www.wired.com/​threatlevel/​) at _WIRED_
 +  * [r/​unixporn](https://​www.reddit.com/​r/​unixporn/​)
   * _[xkcd](https://​xkcd.com/​)_   * _[xkcd](https://​xkcd.com/​)_
 +  * _[Zero Day](https://​zetter.substack.com/​)_
  
 --- ---
  
 [ [[note:​hacker_culture|Notes]] ] [ [[note:​hacker_culture|Notes]] ]
 +