- Guidance Notes to the Co-operative Principles. International Co-operative Alliance, 2015.
- Infographic from Willy Street Co-op
- Hoyt, Ann. “And Then There Were Seven: Cooperative Principles Updated.” Cooperative Grocer (January/February 1996)
- 1987: U.S. Department of Agriculture culled three simple principles: 1) User-owner, 2) User-control, and 3) User-benefits
- Reynolds, Bruce J. Comparing Cooperative Principles of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the International Cooperative Alliance. U.S. Department of Agriculture, June 2014.
- 1937: Rochdale Principles adopted by the ICA
- The Present Applications of the Rochdale Principles. International Cooperative Alliance, 1937.
- United States
- Colorado: § 7-90-601 stipulates that it is illegal to use the name cooperative in a company name unless you are incorporated as a coop under one of the coop statutes or the company is operating on a “cooperative basis”
- New York: it’s a misdemeanor with hefty fines for using the coop name without being organized under the NY coop Corp law
Types of cooperatives
- Mutual insurance
According to the 2014 NCBA annual report,
- “1 in 3 Americans is a member of a co-op and they collectively hold 350 million memberships nationwide”
- “42 million Americans rely on electricity from 900 electric co-ops in 47 states, making up 42% of the nation’s electric distribution and electrifying 75% of the nation’s landmass”
- “Most of the nation’s 2 million farmers belong to a farmer co-op and provide 250,000 jobs and over $8 billion in annual wages”
- “100 million Americans turn to more than 6,000 Credit Unions for their financial services”
- “233 million Americans are served by co-op owned and affiliated insurance companies”
In 2009, a report by the University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives, Research on the Economic Impact of Cooperatives, counted 29,284 cooperatives in the United States. It found:
- “The vast majority of cooperatives are owned by consumers, with most producer cooperatives existing in the agricultural sector.”
- “Overall, nearly 30,000 cooperatives in the United States account for >$3T in assets, over >$500B total revenue, $25B in wages and benefits, and nearly 1M jobs.”
According to these numbers, the revenue of co-ops amounted to 3.47% of the U.S. GDP in 2009.
In 2005, a National Cooperative Month Planning Committee report counted 21,367 co-ops in the United States (while noting that past counts have been as high as 40,000). This includes:
- 127.5 million total memberships
- Only 300 purchasing co-ops, but they represent 50,000 independent businesses. “In 2004, the 10 largest purchasing co-ops alone had revenues of more than $12 billion.”
- “In 2004, the three largest consumer co-ops alone had revenues of $5 billion.”
- “Cooperatives in these six sectors employ considerably more than 500,000 Americans, with aggregate payrolls of more than $15 billion annually”
- “total annual revenues in excess of $211.9 billion”
- World Cooperative Monitor - The 300 largest cooperatives and mutual organizations by turnover
According to the International Co-operative Alliance "facts and figures":
- “Co-operative enterprises worldwide employ 250 million people, and generate 2.2 trillion USD in turnover”
- “In France, 21,000 co-operatives provide over 1 million jobs representing 3.5% of the active working population”
- “In Kenya, 50% of the population derive their livelihoods from co-operatives. Approximately 250,000 Kenyans are employed or gain most of their income from co-operatives.”
- “In Canada, four of every ten Canadians are members of at least one co-operative. In Quebec, approximately 70% of the population are co-op members, while in Saskatchewan 56% are members.”
- “The country with the largest number of individual members indirectly represented by the Alliance is the United States with 256 million members. There are nearly 30,000 co-operatives in the US. The next countries are in Asia, with India following next behind the US with 93.7 million individual members. And then Japan with 77 million individual members. The fourth largest number of members is in Iran with 36.9 million individual members.”
A 2014 United Nations report on Measuring the Size and Scope of the Cooperative Economy found:
- “2.6 Million Cooperatives have over 1 Billion memberships and clients”
- “12.6 Million Employees work in 770,000 Cooperative offices and Outlets”
- “US$20 Trillion in Cooperative Assets generate US$3 trillion in Annual Revenue”
- Notably, in comparison with the above finding that the US sector is in the lead, it isn't in the top 10 globally in terms of either memberships per capita (France, Finland, Switzerland, etc.), employment per capita (New Zealand, Switzerland, Italy, etc.), and revenue as a percentage of the GDP (New Zealand, Netherlands, France, etc.)
- “1 in every 6 people on average in the world has membership or is a client of a cooperative.”
- Cooperative revenue amounts to 4.3% of the global GDP
- Eum, Hyung-sik. Cooperatives and Employment: Second Global Report. CICOPA, 2017.
- Press release: “Based on data from 156 countries, the updated estimate shows that employment in or within the scope of cooperatives concerns at least 279.4 million people across the globe, in other words 9.46% of the world’s employed population.”
- Enspiral - cooperative network founded in New Zealand
- Prime Produce - “a guild for social good”
- UnFound - “a 12-week accelerator programme” in the UK
- Uptima Business Bootcamp - “an innovative network of member-owned business accelerators dedicated to providing entrepreneurs with greater access to hands-on education, resources and community to create thriving businesses”
- Langer-Croager, Rani. “Why We Are a Cooperative.” Uptima Business Bootcamp blog. October 16, 2017.
- Wayfinder Cooperative - co-working space for the outdoors industry in Denver
- Work Hard Pittsburgh - “a cooperative of digital freelance workers”
A tradition of terminology for a cooperative system.
- Conaty, Pat. “The Commons and Co-operative Commonwealth.” Slides for Co-operatives UK and the New Economics Foundation. November 4-5, 2013.
- Lloyd, Henry Demarest. Wealth against Commonwealth. 1894.
- Gordon Nembhard, Jessica. Building a Cooperative Solidarity Commonwealth. The Next System Project, 2016.
- “By a cooperative solidarity commonwealth, I mean a system of interlocking cooperative ownership structures in all industries and all sectors of the economy, where cooperatives and other community-based enterprises support one another by building linked supply chains, collaborating on projects, and sharing funding.These interconnections start locally but build into regional, national, and international interlocking structures, as needed (and as is rational).”
- “By solidarity system, I mean a non-hierarchical, non-exploitative, equitable set of economic relationships and activities geared toward the grassroots—that’s of the people (people before profit), indigenous, participatory, based on human needs, humane values, and ecological sustainability.”
- Gourevitch, Alex. From Slavery to the Cooperative Commonwealth: Labor and Republican Liberty in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press, 2014.
- Gronlund, Laurence. The cooperative commonwealth in its outlines : an exposition of modern socialism. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1884.
- Review: Bellamy, Edward. “The 'Co-operative Commonwealth'.” The New Nation (May 2, 1891).
- Holcombe, H.N. “The Government of the Fabian Socialist Commonwealth.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 35 (May 1921).
- The Fabian society, which advocated socialism through gradualist reform, was a major articulator of the “cooperative commonwealth” vision.
- Lindenfeld, Frank. “The Cooperative Commonwealth: An Alternative To Corporate Capitalism and State Socialism.” Presidential Address delivered at the November 1996 meetings of the Association for Humanist Sociology, Hartford, CT.
- Pouget, Emile and Emile Pataud. Syndicalism and the co-operative commonwealth. New International Publishing Company, 1913.
- Restakis, John. Cooperative Commonwealth & the Partner State. The Next System Project, 2017.
Cooperative reform campaigns
- Mutual Society, The - “an opt-in social movement that aims to enable its members to live a better life. We want to do this on a large-scale, with one million members in Australia, extending internationally as we are able”
- Reforming the Cooperative Movement - “a global initiative for reform. It will encourage, facilitate, support and promote reform initiatives within and between cooperatives and mutuals”
- We Own It - “The national network for cooperative members' rights, education, and organizing”
Credit unions and finance
- Andrews, A. Michael. Survey of Co-operative Capital. Filene, 2017 [?].
- Christensen, Glenn. “Millennials Are Key To Credit Union Growth.” CEOAdvisoryGroup. August 26, 2016.
- The Cooperative Trust - “Catalysing growth and awareness within credit unions by empowering young adults to take action”
- Credit Union Service Organizations - “Under United States federal law and the National Credit Union Administration regulations Part 712, federal credit unions may make an investment in or a loan to a CUSO”
- Morales, Ben. “Fintechs, CUSOs and the Credit Union Movement.” Credit Union Times. April 13, 2018.
- Urrico, Roy. “CUSOs Strive to Maintain Credit Unions’ Cooperative Culture.” Credit Union Times. April 13, 2018.
- CUBallot.com - “provides independent voting services to Credit Unions. Developed and tested in real voting environments, CUBallot offers the unique customization to handle any election issue or process,” and keeps a listing of current, recent, and future elections.
- Kahle, Brewster. “Difficult Times at our Credit Union.” Internet Archive Blogs. November 24, 2015.
- Popper, Nathaniel. “Dream of New Kind of Credit Union Is Extinguished by Bureaucracy.” The New York Times. November 24, 2015.
- Perilleux, Anais and Marthe Nysse. “Understanding Cooperative Finance as a New Common?” 2ème Congrès Interdisciplinaire du Développement Durable (2015).
- “This paper focuses on cooperative finance and argues that financial cooperatives can be considered as human-made common goods.”
- Simpson, Adam and Sarah McKinley. “Cooperative Banking in Croatia.” The Next System Project. December 14, 2016.
Development and infrastructure
- CDS Consulting Co-op - “specializes in supporting clients to meet their goals as strong marketplace competitors with excellence in governance, management, operations, and participation”
- Center for Economic Democracy - in Boston, led by Aaron Tanaka
- CICOPA (International Organisation of Industrial and Service Cooperatives) - “a sectoral organisation of the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA) since 1947” specializing in worker, social, and freelancer co-ops
- We Own It - “a campaign on youth cooperative entrepreneurship developed by CICOPA, the international organisation of worker cooperatives”
- Confédération Internationale des Banques Populaires - “the first international organisation that brings together Popular and Cooperative banking players from five continents”
- coopcounsel - “makes it easy to start a cooperative by creating all the legal documents you need and providing personalized legal help”
- Cooperation Works - “a national organization of cooperative development centers and practitioners”
- Cooperative Food Empowerment Directive, The - “brings tools and trainings to campus communities to develop strong cooperatively-run food businesses”
- The Cooperative Way - Consultancy with Adam Schwartz
- Cooperatives for a Better World - “a not-for-profit organization with the mission to spread the benefits of the cooperative business model through educational and inspirational storytelling”
- Green America - formerly Co-op America
- ICA Group - “Since 1977, the ICA Group has applied expert analysis, results-based planning and a collaborative management approach to start and grow worker cooperatives, democratic ESOPs, and other social purpose ventures”
- IUS Cooperativum - “a world-wide community of lawyers interested in cooperative law”
- Shared Capital Cooperative - “a national loan fund and federally certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI) that provides financing to cooperative businesses and housing throughout the United States,” headquartered in Minneapolis
- Solid Fund - UK-based “worker cooperative solidarity fund”
- Tuttle Law Group - “serving cooperative enterprises since 1911”
- USACYC #coopyouth - Cooperative Youth Council; “empowering youth in the cooperative movement”
- Abello, Oscar Perry. “Closing the Funding Gap for Worker Cooperatives.” Next City. July 8, 2016.
- GoCoop - India-based ecommerce site for handicraft cooperatives, does not itself appear to be a cooperative
- Rao, Meghna. “An Amazon for cooperatives solves almost every single ecommerce hiccup.” Tech in Asia. October 10, 2015.
- CoopZone - “ promoting and supporting the growth and development of co-operatives, through mobilizing co-operative developers committed to the vision and objectives of the co-operative movement”
- Cooperative Development Institute - focused on Northeastern United States
- Cooperative Foundation, The - “uses a regional approach to accomplish its mission, with efforts focused in the Upper Midwest states of Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. The Foundation pursues its mission by sponsoring educational programs, serving as an educational resource, and supporting organizations involved in cooperative education and development”
- Federation of Southern Cooperatives - “Fighting To Save Black-Owned Land Since 1967 With Cooperatives”
- Ohio Employee Ownership Center at Kent State University
- In addition to ESOPs, involved in supporting worker co-ops, in collaboration with Mondragon and the Democracy Collaborative
- Programs are more focused on development than formal education
- coopData.org - “an aspiring #platformcoop that applies better practices in open data management to cooperative communities in the United States (and maybe one day beyond)”
- Cultivate.coop - “a library of information about cooperatives,” MediaWiki
- Directory.coop - Location-based directory of .coop domains
- Find a Worker Coop - from the US Federation of Worker Cooperatives
- Find.coop - “a directory of economic alternatives” from the Data Commons Cooperative
- Internet of Ownership - For platform co-ops
- p6data.coop - “What if there was an online directory of co-ops that anyone could search, contribute to and build on?”
- Andrews, A. Michael. Survey of Cooperative Capital. International Co-operative Alliance.
- Leung, Mike. “How Traditional Accounting Hinders Worker Co-op Start-Ups.” Grassroots Economic Organizing. October 19, 2016.
- Conaty, Pat, et al. Not Alone: Trade Union and Co-operative Solutions for Self-Employed Workers. Co-operatives UK, 2016.
- Conaty, Pat, et al. Working Together: Trade Union and Co-operative Innovations for Precarious Workers. Co-operatives UK, 2018.
- ColoradoCare, a cooperative health care proposal
- Colorado Recovery - “provides adults with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other serious mental illnesses, access to a community-based residential treatment facility, transitional living, intensive outpatient treatment, and vocational services”
- Warner, Richard et al. “The Quality of Life of People With Schizophrenia in Boulder, Colorado, and Bologna, Italy.” Schizophrenia Bulletin 24, no. 4 (1998).
- Warner, Richard. Recovery from Schizophrenia: Psychiatry and Political Economy%20-%20Recovery%20from%20Schizophrenia%20Psychiatry%20and%20Political%20Economy.pdf). Third Edition. Brunner-Routledge, 2004.
- Savio, M. and A. Righetti. “Cooperatives as a Social Enterprise in Italy: A Place for Social Integration and Rehabilitation.” Acta Psychiatr Scand 88 (1993).
- Starr, Paul. The Social Transformation of American Medicine: The rise of a sovereign profession and the making of a vast industry. Basic Books, 1984.
- “The first self-consciously radical attempt to reorganize medical care on a prepaid, comprehensive basis came out of the cooperative movement. In 1929 - the year that the Baylor and Ross-Loos plans were organized - the first “medical cooperative” in America was formed in rural Oklahoma. During the thirties and forties a number of others appeared across the country. The medical cooperatives, as the leader of the movement explained, emphasized four principles: group practice, prepayment, preventive medicine, and - uniquely - consumer participation. The medical profession was unremittingly hostile, and by the end of the decade succeeded in convincing most states to pass restrictive laws that effectively barred consumer-controlled plans from operating.” (302)
- Future Care Capital. “Unleashing the potential of health and care data.” 2017.
- Includes recommendation for health care cooperatives
Health "sharing" programs
- Social co-ops in Italian cooperatives
- 1940: Power and the Land. Rural Electrification Administration, USDA.
- 1941: The Co-ops Are Comin'. Cooperative League.
- c. 1950: The Rural Co-op. United States Information Service.
- c. 1950: All Together. Tennessee Valley Cooperatives.
- 1953: Milk: The Co-operative Way. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service.
Management and governance
- Birchall, Johnston. The Governance of Large Co-operative Businesses. Second edition. Co-operatives UK, 2017.
- Cook, Michael. “[The Role of Management Behavior in Agricultural Cooperatives.” Journal of Agricultural Cooperation (1994).
- Cook, Michael. “A Life Cycle Explanation of Cooperative Longevity.” Sustainability 10 (2018).
- Côté, Daniel. “Managing Cooperative Equilibrium: A Theoretical Framework.” Économies et solidarités 38, no. 1 (2009).
- Offers a framework of equilibrium for cooperative management, as opposed to some sort of maximization
- Includes the “balanced scorecard” model, from conventional management scholarship, for cooperative managers
- Edenfield, Avery C. “The Burden of Ambiguity: Writing at a Cooperative.” Technical Communication 65, no. 1 (February 2018).
- Fairbairn, Brett. Three Strategic Concepts for the Guidance of Co-operatives: Linkage, Transparency, and Cognition. Centre for the Study of Co-operatives, University of Saskatchewan, 2003.
- Giannakas, Konstantinos, Murray Fulton, and Juan Sesmero. “Horizon and Free-Rider Problems in Cooperative Organizations.” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 41, no. 3 (2016).
- Hale, James and Michael Carolan. “Cooperative or Uncooperative Cooperatives? Digging into the Process of Cooperation in Food and Agriculture Cooperatives.” Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 8, no. 1 (2018).
- Jones, Derek C. and Panu Kalmi, “Economies of Scale Versus Participation: A Co-Operative Dilemma?.” Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity 1, no. 1 (2012), 37-64.
- Taylor, Keith. “Learning from the Co-operative Institutional Model: How to Enhance Organizational Robustness of Third Sector Organizations with More Pluralistic Forms of Governance.” Administrative Sciences 5 (2015).
- Taylor, Keith A. and Art Sherwood. “Unique Expectations of Co-operative Boards: Taking on the Challenges of the Democratic Enterprise.” International Journal of Co-operative Management 7, no. 1 (August 2014).
- Young-Hyman, Trevor. “Does Cooperation Require Co-Laboring? How Authority Moderates Project Team Structure.” Academy of Management Proceedings (January 2014).
- Young-Hyman, Trevor. “Cooperating without Co-laboring: How Formal Organizational Power Moderates Cross-functional Interaction in Project Teams.” Administrative Science Quarterly 62, no 1 (2016).
- AORTA, “a worker-owned cooperative devoted to strengthening movements for social justice and a solidarity economy”
- Berrett-Koehler Publishers' innovative model includes an authors' cooperative
- Common Equity - A co-op of “Chaplains hosting People with Co-ops”
- Evergreen Cooperatives of Cleveland, OH
- FairShares - “a brand and development model for self-governing social enterprises operating under Association, Co-operative and Company Law. It offers a unique multi-stakeholder approach through its integration of entrepreneurs, producers, consumers and investors”
- Kenya leads the cooperative movement in Africa and has a well-developed infrastructure for the cooperative economy.
- Radix Media - Worker co-op print shop formed partly out of Occupy Wall Street
- Salish Sea Cooperative Finance - “SSCoFI is made up of member-owners – people who are student debtors or individuals who wish to participate in reclaiming the credit commons”
- McCartney, Kelly. “New Cooperative Refinances Student Debt with Community Funds.” Shareable. July 28, 2014.
- The Toolbox for Education and Social Action, “a worker-owned cooperative. We create imaginative and experiential resources that transform the way people think, learn, teach, work, and act”
- Visa and Mastercard, founded as co-ops of banks and then demutualized
- Waldrop, M. Mitchell. “The Trillion-Dollar Vision of Dee Hock.” Fast Company. October 31, 1996.
- Barber, Lynsey. “The Co-op is exploring blockchain technology.” City A. M.. September 7, 2016.
- “The Co-Operative Group is exploring how blockchain technology can be used to prove the authenticity of its food in a pilot”
- Fernando, Aaron. “A blockchain for farmers and co-ops: Q&A with Kora's Maomao Hu.” Shareable. April 16, 2018.
- Harvey, Rebecca. “Could blockchain technology put co-ops at the front of the digital revolution?.” The Co-operative News. November 1, 2016.
- RChain - “To become a blockchain solution with industrial-scale utility, RChain must provide content delivery at the scale of Facebook and support transactions at the speed of Visa”
- Aces United LLC, Due Diligence Report: RChain Holdings, RChain Cooperative, Reflective Venture Partners, LLC. 2018.
- “RChain partnership announcement.” Resonate blog. March 5, 2018.
- Reutzel, Bailey. “Credit Unions Seek to Become First to Market With Banking Blockchain.” CoinDesk. September 3, 2016.
- Reutzel, Bailey. “Credit Unions Turn to Blockchain Amid Increasing Competition.” CoinDesk October 10, 2016.
- Agricultural Data Coalition - “to help farmers better control and manage their electronic data and promote innovation and progress in the agricultural marketplace”
- Agrilyst -
- AgXchange - “bringing growers and their data together”
- Ferris, Ted. “History of a national dairy record system.” Progressive Dairyman. November 10, 2006.
- Hadfield, Miles. “Data and new challenges for co-op governance: A view from the agri sector. Co-operative News. May 10, 2018.
- Mattison, Jay. ”Dairy Data Flow: Challenges and Opportunities.“ Farmer Cooperatives Conference, Minneapolis, MN. November 6, 2015.
- Open Ag Data Alliance - Not a cooperative, but “an open source framework and a community of commercial vendors, farmers, academics, and developers upon which the emerging ag data market can rapidly grow”
See The Internet of Ownership Library for more.
- Cohen, Boyd. ”How a Network of Platform Co-op Accelerators Could Support Sharing Cities.“ Shareable. November 20, 2015.
- Cohen, Boyd. ”Responsible Sharing Economy Accelerator Begins in Barcelona.“ Shareable. December 21, 2015.
- Dewey, Caitlin. ”You don’t know it, but you’re working for Facebook. For free..“ The Washington Post. July 22, 2015.
- Geraci, John. ”Interviewed: Venture Capitalist Brad Burnham on Skinny Platforms.“ Shareable. June 22, 2015.
- Gorenflo, Neal. ”How Platform Coops Can Beat Death Star Platforms to Create a Real Sharing Economy.“ Shareable. November 3, 2015.
- Said Vieira, Miguel and Primavera De Filippi. ”Between Copyleft and Copyfarleft: Advance Reciprocity for the Commons.“ Journal of Peer Production 4 (January 2014).
- Scholz, Trebor. ”The Future of Work: The People's Uber.“ Pacific Standard. September 23, 2015.
- Scholz, Trebor. ”Platform Cooperativism vs. the Sharing Economy.“ December 5, 2014.
- Scholz, Trebor. ”Think Outside the Boss.“ Public Seminar. April 5, 2015.
- Scholz, Trebor. Platform Cooperativism: Challenging the Corporate Sharing Economy. Rosa Luxemburg Siftung, 2016.
- Schneider, Nathan. ”5 Ways to Take Back Tech.“ The Nation. May 27, 2015.
- Schneider, Nathan. ”Owning Is the New Sharing.“ Shareable. December 21, 2014.
- Van Slyke, Brian. ”The Argument For Worker-Owned Tech Collectives.“ Fast Company. November 20, 2013.
- Van Slyke, Brian and David Morgan. ”The 'Sharing Economy' is the Problem: The Cooperative Economy is the Solution.“ Grassroots Economic Organizing. 2015.
- Sustainable Development Goals
- Co-ops for 2030, an ICA portal on the SDGs
- ”EGM on the Cooperative Sector and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development - Expert papers on co-ops and the SDGs
- United States
- Via the Wayback Machine: Bernie Sanders' platform called for “Creating Worker Co-ops” in May 2015.
- “Legislative Package Introduced to Encourage Employee-Owned Companies.” Senator Bernie Sanders press release. May 11, 2017.
- See Colorado
- “Philadelphia to join ten other cities in investing in cooperative development.” The Philadelphia Sunday Sun. October 21, 2016.
- Hird, Christopher. “The Crippled Giants.” New Internationalist 106. December 1981.
- “The brave new experiments of large industrial cooperatives established by Britain’s Labour government in the 1970s have dribbled away into the footnotes of textbooks. Why did they fail? Christopher Hird answers the hard questions and argues that the experience of the Tony Benn cooperatives could provide valuable lessons”
- Kirkup, James. “Tories plan 'workers' co-operatives' for public sector.” The Telegraph. February 16, 2010.
Publishing, media, and journalism
- de Assis, Carolina. “Argentine newspapers closed or abandoned by owners are recuperated by workers' cooperatives.” Journalism in the Americas blog. March 21, 2018.
- Associated Press - “a not-for-profit news cooperative owned by its American newspaper and broadcast members”
- Blondheim, Manahem. News over the wires: the telegraph and the flow of public information in America, 1844-1897. Harvard University Press, 1994.
- Mears, Walter R. “A Brief History of AP.” In Reporters of the Associated Press, Breaking News: How the Associated Press Has Covered War, Peace, and Everything Else. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.
- Rosewater, Victor. History of Coöperative News-Gathering in the United States. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1930.
- Silberstein-Loeb, Jonathan. The International Distribution of News: The Associated Press, Press Association, and Reuters, 1848--1947. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
- Baines, Jessica. Democratising Print? The Field and Practices of Radical and Community Printshops in Britain 1968-98. London School of Economics thesis, 2016.
- Banyan Project - “to help seed independent community news cooperatives, then support them with mentorship and educational and administrative tools”
- The Bristol Cable - “a media co-operative – created and owned by people in the city”
- The Canary - UK independent news organization with a profit-sharing model among staff
- Cooperative Press - publisher of Co-operative News, owned by readers and other co-ops
- Deca - “a cooperative of award-winning journalists bringing deeply reported, global stories straight to our digital readers”
- Shavin, Naomi. “Is New Journalism Cooperative Deca The Future Of Digital Publishing?.” Forbes. June 26, 2014.
- Detroit Journalism Cooperative - Knight-funded collaboration among Detroit media organizations
- Efimerida ton Syntakton - “The Journalists' Newspaper,” a major Greek co-op paper
- Profiled in Restakis' chapter on Greece
- Graham-Harrison, Emma. “'We had no investors. We did it alone, believing in our power and abilities'.” The Guardian. July 19, 2015.
- “Forming a Cooperative Corporation.” Digital Media Law Project.
- Harvey, Rebecca. “Britain’s first authors’ co-operative launches,” The Co-operative News. January 5, 2017.
- Rivera, Mary Anne. “Jubilee: A Magazine of the Church and Her People_: Toward a Vatican II Ecclesiology.” Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture 10, no. 4 (Fall 2007).
- The Masses
- The Media Co-op - “A project of the Dominion News Cooperative”, “Local Independent News” in Canada
- Mutual Broadcasting System - “an American radio network in operation from 1934 to 1999,” cooperative (owned by just some of its stations) until 1952
- “Mutual Broadcasting System, The,” in Report on Chain Broadcasting (U. S. Federal Communications Commission, May, 1941), pp. 26–28.
- “PROFILE: MUTUAL BROADCASTING SYSTEM SIGNS OFF THE AIR AFTER ALMOST 65 YEARS OF BROADCASTING.” Weekend All Things Considered. April 18, 1999.
- New Internationalist
- New-York Tribune, founded by the cooperativist Horace Greeley, undertook a profit-sharing arrangement with employees
- Peninsula Newspapers Inc., a chain in Palo Alto, was the first ESOP established by Louis Kelso, sold to the Chicago Tribune
- Tweet by an employee
- Taz - A German cooperative newspaper
- Doennebrink, Thomas. “#BuyTwitter? German newspaper Taz has been there, done that.” _P2P Foundation Blog. October 31, 2016.
- Flanders, Laura. Next System Media: An Urgent Necessity. The Next System Project, 2017.
- Greco, Susan. “The Declaration of Independents.” Inc. September 1, 2001.
Tech services cooperatives
- Agaric - “a collective of skilled workers, we collaborate with you and free software communities to develop tools and build platforms that meet your needs.”
- Co-op Source Foundation - “a group of software engineers building a community to serve the needs of our members. Our goal is to provide support to software projects following the Seven Cooperative Principles”
- Feel Train - “a creative technology cooperative”
- Kazemi, Darius. “Hello Feel Train.” Feel Train Blog. July 8, 2015.
- FullSteam Labs - “a worker-owned tech cooperative specializing in creative design, digital storytelling, and tech consulting for good causes” based in Asheville, North Carolina
- Goalboost - A worker co-op that produces time and billing software
- Integrated Systems for Co-ops (IS4C) - “started a number of years ago as an effort in integrating the database systems within the Wedge Community Co-op in Minneapolis”
- IO Cooperative - “provides its members with technology infrastructure to sustain and enhance their professional, academic, and personal lives”
- Loomio as a meta example - both a coop itself and a tool that many collaborative orgs are starting to use
- Schneider, Nathan. “How a Worker-Owned Tech Startup Found Investors—and Kept Its Values.” YES! Magazine. April 26, 2016.
- National Information Solutions Cooperative - “an information technology company that develops and supports software and hardware solutions for our Member-Owners who are primarily utility cooperatives and telecommunications companies”
- Nilenso - “is an employee-owned software cooperative based out of Bangalore, India. We ship beautiful, fully-tested applications for you.”
- Deobald, Steven. “Two Years Wiser: The nilenso Experiment.” Grassroots Economic Organizing.
- Outlandish - “We help more people work on technology that makes a difference,” based in UK
- Research Action Design - “Research Action Design (RAD) uses community-led research, transformative media organizing, technology development, and collaborative design to build the power of grassroots social movements”
- Sassafras Tech Collective - “Crafting innovative, usable technology for social change”
- Tech Support Cooperative - “fosters autonomy and independence through education and support that focuses on the intersection of technology and humanity”
- Territoires - “creates digital tools that contribute to the social and cultural development of territories”; multi-stakeholder, founded in Montreal
- Anctil, Gabrielle. “Can Coops Revolutionize the Tech Industry?.” Model View Culture. March 16, 2016.
- Keng, Cameron. “If Apple Were A Worker Cooperative, Each Employee Would Earn At Least $403K.” Forbes. December 18, 2014.
- Kleiner, Dmytri. The Telekommunist Manifesto. Institute of Network Cultures, 2010.
- Resnikoff, Ned. “Worker-owned tech cooperatives find a niche near Silicon Valley.” Al Jazeera America. May 26, 2015.
Real estate and land
- NorthEast Investment Cooperative (NEIC) - “a cooperative that allows residents of Minnesota to invest financially to collectively buy, rehab, and manage commercial and residential property in Northeast Minneapolis.”
- Lewis, Caroline. “Hundreds join a new kind of co-op to buy commercial property in high-rent areas.” Crain's New York Business. May 24, 2015.
- Margolin, Madison. “This Group Wants to Help Lower Rents by Buying Real Estate as a Collective.” The Village Voice. October 7, 2015.
- Park Plaza Cooperative, a mobile home park in Minnesota
- Zwerdling, Daniel. “When Residents Take Ownership, A Mobile Home Community Thrives.” National Public Radio. December 27, 2016.
- ROC USA - “helps homeowners purchase and successfully manage their mobile home parks from coast to coast”
Ridesharing and taxis
- Ackerman, Seth. “How to Socialize Uber.” Jacobin. April 7, 2015.
- Arcade City - Ethereum-based blockchain carsharing
- Arcade City. “Here’s the first Arcade City constitution.” Medium. September 19, 2016.
- Brown, Kristen V. “Why Austin’s ‘Anti-Uber’ start-up is probably doomed.” Fusion. July 29, 2016.
- A lengthy expose on Christopher David's libertarian background and reasons why he is unlikely to have the skills to succeed.
- CatnipHappy. “Arcade City App is out - and is very likely fraudulent. HELP in deconstructing the app!.” Reddit.com/r/Austin. September 6, 2016.
- “if you download the apk and decompile the app, there are zero ridesharing, mapping, or any functionality in it. It seems like its just a front end tying in to facebook. Do we have any software/JAVA engineers on here that can explain what is actually in the app itself?”
- Chen-O'Neill, Ivan. “An American Fraudster : The Dirge of Christopher David, CEO of Arcade City.” Medium. April 2, 2016.
- David, Christopher. “Arcade City CEO remarks to Blockchain World Congress.” Medium. September 15, 2016.
- Sets out an objective: “to provide a true social mesh, an operating system that can systematize this group-forming network of driver co-ops.”
- Valenzuela, Joël. “Arcade City: Decentralized, Blockchain-Based Answer to Uber.” The CoinTelegraph. January 20, 2016.
- Valenzuela, Joël. “Police Target Arcade City CEO While Ridesharing Company Integrates Blockchain, Bitcoin.” The CoinTelegraph. July 18, 2016.
- Denver (see Colorado - Taxis
- Cassano, Jay. “Taxis Unite: Denver Taxi Drivers Are Forming Their Own Cooperatives.” FastCoExist. February 4, 2015.
- Hansen, Mary. “What If Uber Were a Unionized, Worker-Owned Co-Op? These Denver Cabbies Are Making It Happen.” YES! Magazine. April 10, 2015.
- DePillis, Lydia. “Can taxi unions build an app to take on Uber?.” The Washington Post. January 19, 2015.
- Flywheel, an app for traditional taxi companies
- Harris, Kyle. “Cabby-owned Taxi Cooperatives on the Rise.” Shareable. January 5, 2015.
- Joly, Gaele. “Des chauffeurs Uber lancent une application 'made in France'.” France info (October 18, 2015).
- Johnson, Cat. “Juno to Take On Uber with Driver-owned Socially Responsible Ridesharing.” Shareable. March 1, 2015.
- “Montgomery County Council Approves Bills to Improve Taxi Service, Compete With Companies Like Uber.” NBC Washington. July 21, 2015.
- OpenRoll - “gathering articles, ideas, projects related to open, worker co-op ride/car services. from @tmccormick”
- Open Transport - “tools, including web and mobile apps, for the transport and on-demand industries”
- People's Ride - “a rideshare Worker Co-op local to Grand Rapids, MI”
- Teig, Amir. “Google's Waze to launch worldwide carpooling pilot in Israel.” Haaretz. July 6, 2015.
- Shu, Catherine. “Korea’s Daum Kakao Prepares To Launch Kakao Taxi As Uber Faces Legal Woes.” TechCrunch. January 13, 2015.
- Transunion Car Service - app-based in Newark, NJ
- Delli Santi, Angela. “From Organizing to Mobilizing: United Transportation Alliance Launches App-Based Taxi Service.” AFL-CIO Now. March 25, 2015.
- Nix, Naomi. “Union-backed taxi service starts in Newark, amid regulatory debate about Uber.” NJ.com. March 20, 2015.
- Cakebread, Caroline. “Uber is exploring a way to repair its relationship with drivers: equity in the $69 billion company.” Business Insider. June 29, 2017.
- Wistreich, Nic. “What might a Coop Uber look like? (or should we be thinking bigger)?” Hello Ideas. 2015.
- Abell, Hilary. Worker Cooperatives: Pathways to Scale. The Democracy Collaborative (June 2014).
- Abrams, John. Companies We Keep: Employee Ownership and the Business of Community and Place. Second edition. Chelsea Green, 2008.
- An account of the conversion, governance, and rationale of South Mountain Company, a worker co-op builder that Abrams co-founded in Martha's Vinyard.
- Errasti, Anjel, Ignacio Bretos, and Aitziber Nunez. “The Viability of Cooperatives: The Fall of the Mondragon Cooperative Fagor.” Review of Radical Political Economics (February 2, 2017).
- Explores the “degeneration thesis” that originates with Sidney and Beatrice Webb, which claims that worker co-ops inevitably degenerate into capitalist firms
- Marraffino, Joe. “Resources for the History of Worker Cooperatives in the United States.” Co-operative News. August 27, 2011.
- Wolff, Richard. Democracy at Work: A Cure for Capitalism. Haymarket, 2012.
- In strongly Marxian terms (with an emphasis on surplus value), argues for “worker self-determined enterprises” (WSDE) as the basic unit of production. This is explicitly not a call for worker cooperation, exactly, or even worker ownership, as Wolff is open to a variety of ownership regimes, including ownership by workers, the state, or others. The key principle is that the productive workers determine what becomes of the surplus value their labor produces—even to the point of distinguishing between the “productive” workers (who have a special role in governance to prevent the exploitation of their labor) and the “enablers” (who handle the support jobs from cleaning to legal work).
- Provides little explanation (other than some state support) for how such enterprises would compete in obtaining growth capital from when compared to capitalist firms.
- Ward, Benjamin. “The Firm in Illyria: Market Syndicalism.” American Economic Review 48, no. 4 (September 1958).
- Observing the rise of “a less centralized form of economic organization” emerging in Eastern European socialist countries (566), esp. Yugoslavia. Describes the system of worker self-management (569), including setting wages. State reserved the right to intervene (570).
- Proposes the imaginary firm of Illyria, where firms are worker-managed, no state intervention, no minimum wage, pure competitive market. Worker-managers see to maximize their short-term income. Plant is state-owned, paid for with rent. Workers set their own wages.
- A series of curves exploring relationships between wages and production in both Illyrian and capitalist firms. “Illyria must pay a price for its decentralized pricing system in the form of imperfect markets” (581). The firm confronts rigidity in the labor market on the supply side.
- The Illyarian firm is at a disadvantage for growth if the workers don't voluntarily reinvest some profits. “Something additional to worker self-interest might well be necessary in the Illyrian environment to ensure entry equivalent to that under capitalism” (583).
- Yugoslavia has had to pass an antitrust law in order to prevent companies from manipulating prices by controlling output.
- Ends with a call for further investigation (585).
- Baggs, Christopher M. “The Libraries of the Co-operative Movement: A Forgotten Episode.” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 23, no. 2 (June 1991).
- Beito, David T. From Mutual Aid to Welfare State: Fraternal Societies and Social Services, 1890-1967. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
- Laursen, Eric. “The Legacy of the Lodges: Mutual Aid and Consumer Society.” New Formulation 2, no. 2 (Winter/Spring 2004).
- Bollier, David. “The Promise of 'Open Co-operativism'.” Bollier.org. January 19, 2015.
- Couchman, Peter and Murray Fulton. “When Big Co-ops Fail.” Co-operative News. January 15, 2016.
- Curl, John. For All the People: Uncovering the Hidden History of Cooperation, Cooperative Movements, and Communalism in America. Second edition. PM Press, 2012.
- Ensuring That No One Is Left Behind: The Cooperative Sector as a Partner in the Implementation of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs expert group meeting. November 16-17, 2016.
- Gilbert, Geoff, “Cincinnati’s experiment with an economy that works for everyone.” Waging Nonviolence. August 6, 2015.
- Giszpenc, Noémi. “Cooperatives: The (Jewish) World's Best-Kept Secret.” Jewish Currents (Autumn 2012).
- Goodwyn, Lawrence. The Populist Moment: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America. Oxford University Press, 1978.
- Gregory, Karen. “From Sharing to Cooperation: Lessons from Mondragón in the “New Economy”.” Digital Labor Working Group @ CUNY Graduate Center. April 27, 2015.
- Hansmann, Henry. “All Firms are Cooperatives – And so are Governments.” Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity 2, no. 2 (2013).
- Hansmann, Henry. The Ownership of Enterprise. Harvard University Press, 2000.
- Holyoake, George Jacob. The History of Co-operation. T. Fisher Unwin, 1908.
- Huchet Bishop, Claire. All Things Common. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1950.
- An account of the Community of Work movement in Europe
- Jossa, Bruno. “Marx, Marxism and the cooperative movement.” Cambridge Journal of Economics (2005).
- Knapp, Joseph G. The Rise of American Cooperative Enterprise: 1620-1920. Interstate Printers & Publishers, 1969.
- Knapp, Joseph G. The Advance of American Cooperative Enterprise: 1920-1945. Interstate Printers & Publishers, 1973.
- Leung, Mike. “The Cooperative Hostile Takeover: A Novel Strategy for Worker Co-op Conversions.” Grassroots Economic Organizing. February 5, 2018.
- Michie, Jonathan, Joseph R. Blasi, and Carlo Borzaga (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Mutual, Co-Operative, and Co-Owned Business. Oxford University Press, 2017.
- Mathews, Race. Jobs of Our Own: Building a Stakeholder Society. Pluto Press, 2009.
- Strong emphasis on distributism and Mondragon
- Mathews, Race. Manning’s Children: Responses to Rerum Novarum in Victoria, 1891 to 1966. Master's thesis for MCD University of Divinity (March 2014).
- Emphasis on the concept of “formation” in the development of Mondragon
- Mathews, Race. Various online texts.
- McLeod, Andrew. Holy Cooperation! Building Graceful Economies. Cascade Books, 2009.
- Molk, Peter. “The Puzzling Lack of Cooperatives.” Tulane Law Review 88 (2014).
- Mulder, Catherine P. [Transcending Capitalism Through Cooperative Practices. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
- Murray, Robin. Co-operation in the Age of Google. Co-operatives UK. 2010.
- Pérotin, Virginie. What Do We Really Know About Worker Cooperatives?. Co-operatives UK, 2016.
- Pinto, Sanjay. Ours to Share: How Worker Ownership Can Change the American Economy. The Surdna Foundation, March 2016.
- Schneiberg, Marc. “Movements as Political Conditions for Diffusion: Anti-Corporate Movements and the Spread of Cooperative Forms in American Capitalism,” Organization Studies 34, no. 5-6 (2013)
- Schneiberg, Marc. “Toward an Organizationally Diverse American Capitalism? Cooperative, Mutual, and Local, State-Owned Enterprise,” Seattle University Law Review 34 (2011), pp. 1409–1434.
- Spann, Edward K. Brotherly Tomorrows: Movements for a Cooperative Society in America, 1820-1920. Columbia University Press, 1989.
- Warbasse, James Peter. Cooperative Democracy. Third Edition. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1936.
- Williams, Richard C. The Cooperative Movement: Globalization from Below. Ashgate, 2007.
- Wilson, John F., Anthony Webster, and Rachael Vorberg-Rugh. Building Co-operation: A Business History of The Co-operative Group, 1863-2013. Oxford University Press, 2013.
- Yao, Stephen. Routledge Revivals: New Views of Co-operation: Working-Class Politics in Britain and Sweden. Routledge, 1988.