Which, in this context, is another word for participation.



Facilitation frameworks


Government crowdsourcing

Platform candidates

Participatory Budgeting


  • Balance - mutual-credit-based platform for shared expenses in collectives
  • Cobudget - communicative crowdfunding tool developed by and for Enspiral


  • Gilman, Hollie Russon. Democracy Reinvented: Participatory Budgeting and Civic Innovation in America. Brookings Institution Press, 2015.
  • Lerner, Josh. Everyone Counts: Could Participatory Budgeting Change Democracy?. Cornell University Press, 2014.

"Partner state"


Technologies and "Civic Tech"

  • - “the only 'always on' platform that works in both campaign and governance (coming soon) phases of government ensuring continuity amongst supporters and reducing the need to campaign in cycles”
  • Airesis - “the social network for e-democracy”
  • BoardRoom - “blockchain governance suite” by Consensys based on Ethereum
    • “CivicMakers supports the civic technology sector with resources, connections, advocacy and vision, while providing the space for technologists, elected officials, agency staff and citizens of all stripes to come together to co-create a living democracy on planet earth.”
  • Collective Decision Engines - “Quadratic Voting is a way for groups to make decisions together that achieves the greatest possible good for the greatest number of group members” - “It was invented by University of Chicago economist and CDE co-founder Glen Weyl, who has proven with University of Chicago statistician Steven Lalley that it is the only optimal and practical way to make collective decisions.”
  • Countable - “Get clear, concise summaries of bills going through Congress, see what others think, then take action. Telling your reps how you feel is easier than ever with email and now video messages.”
  • Crabgrass - “a software libre web application designed for social networking, group collaboration and network organizing”
    • “Frustrated by the endemic corruption and electoral dysfunction of his native Czech Republic, mathematician and anti-corruption activist Karel Janeček began work on a new model voting system in 2012. The system, tested for the first time in October 2013, challenges centuries-old presumptions of how voters can participate in the democratic process.”
  • DemTools - “harnesses the power of free, open-source software to provide civic organizations, legislatures, and political parties with the capabilities to effectively engage 21st century citizens and build better democracies”
  • Discuto - “enables you to instantly get feedback on your proposal, identify conflicting views, suggest better solutions and find common ground”
  • Flux - “a gateway Australians can use, to participate directly in parliament, making the need for trust in elected officials a thing of the past”
  • Hyperarchy - “a collaborative decision-making tool based on ranked-pairs voting” designed for GitHub
  • InterTwinkles - “a platform built from the ground up to help small democratic groups to do process online. It provides structure to improve the efficiency of specific communication tasks like brainstorming and proposals.”
  • LaboDemo - “Consultancy, design of strategies and implementation of digital tools, online participatory processes and collective work through Internet”
  • LiquidFeedback - “an open-source software, powering internet platforms for proposition development and decision making”
  • Loomio - “free and open source software for anyone, anywhere, to participate in decisions that affect them”
    • See also: CoBudget.
  • Principled Societies Project - “Developing the LEDDA Economic Direct Democracy Framework”
    • Boik, John, Lorenzo Fioramonti, and Gary Milante. ”Rebooting Democracy.“ Foreign Policy. March 16, 2015.
  • PublicVotes - “A publicly verifiable Voting System, powered by Smart Contracts”
  • - “helps communities and organizations understand themselves”
  • United - a crypto-powered “liquid democracy” platform aimed at legislatures
  • Xnet - “a group of activists working since 2008 in fields related to: online democracy (participation mechanisms and citizen control of power and institutions); the advocacy of a neutral and free Internet; the free circulation of culture, knowledge and information and the defence of citizen journalism for the right to know, inform and be informed; the technical, communications and legal fight against corruption; and the technopolitics understood as the practice of networking and taking action for empowerment, justice and social transformation.”
    • “Your Priorities is a powerful eDemocracy web application designed by the non profit Citizens Foundation to help groups of people speak with one voice.”
    • “People submit ideas and debate them in a simple but advanced debate system. The best ideas with the best points for and against rise to the top.”

Blockchain governance

  • Augur - “A Decentrazlied Oracle & Prediction Market Platform”
  • Colony - “Colony is infrastructure for the future of work: self-organizing companies that run via software, not paperwork”
  • Tezos - rewards community innovation with an on-chain mechanism that seamlessly amends the rules governing its protocol and incentivizes protocol development.”