Which, in this context, is another word for participation.
- Encode - “transparent and dynamic governance models,” via “For-Purpose” company, related to Holacracy
- Bernstein, Ethan, John Bunch, Niko Canner, and Michael Lee. “Beyond the Holacracy Hype.” Harvard Business Review. July–August 2016.
- Robertson, Brian J. Holacracy: The New Management System for a Rapidly Changing World. Henry Holt, 2015.
- Schneider, Nathan. “A Techy Management Fad Gives Workers More Power—Up to a Point.” YES! Magazine. September 30, 2015.
- Sociocracy - “a system of governance, using consent-based decision making among individuals and an organizational structure based on cybernetic principles”
- Varoufakis, Yanis. “Why Valve? Or, what do we need corporations for and how does Valve’s management structure fit into today’s corporate world?.” Valve Economics. August 3, 2012.
- Lee, Michael Y. and Amy C. Edmondson. “Self-managing organizations: Exploring the limits of less-hierarchical organizing.” Research in Organizational Behavior 37 (2017).
- Citizen Code. Self-Organization Constitution
- Futarchy - “a form of government proposed by economist Robin Hanson, in which elected officials define measures of national welfare, and prediction markets are used to determine which policies will have the most positive effect”
- Harquail, CV. “Pattern Language for Generative Interactions: 3 Approaches to Learn.” Authentic Organizations. May 9, 2014.
- Kaner, Sam. Facilitator's Guide to Participatory Decision-Making. Jossey-Bass, 2007.
- Liquid democracy
- Hardt, Steve and Lia C. R. Lopes. “Google Votes: A Liquid Democracy Experiment on a Corporate Social Network.” Technical Disclosure Commons, 2015.
- Josef, “Liquid Democracy is NOT Delegative Democracy.” United Diversity. July 19, 2013.
- Noveck, Beth Simone. “Participatory Democracy’s Emerging Tools.” Governing. March 11, 2015.
- Project-based spokescouncil
- Balkind, Devin. “How to Run Collaborative Projects That Don't Fall Prey to Bureaucracy.” Shareable. July 20, 2017.
- Fernandez De Castro, Rafa. “How Mexico City is using the internet to crowdsource its new constitution.” Fusion. May 4, 2016.
- NYSpeaks - “a public consultation process that helps New Yorkers come to consensus around the actions politicians should take to make New York City a better place,” part of Devin Balkind's campaign for NYC Public Advocate
- Allman, Michael - Republican in California
- Peters, Adele. ”This Candidate For Congress Will Let His Constituents Decide How He Votes.“ Fast Company. January 2, 2018.
- Casas, Camilo - with Parti.vote
- Matsakis, Louise. ”Colorado Political Candidate Promises to Give His Seat to an App.“ Motherboard. October 16, 2017.
- Democracy OS (see below)
- Flux candidates in Australia
- Peters, Adele. ”Can Technology Save Democracy?.“ Fast Company. March 13, 2017.
- Balance - mutual-credit-based platform for shared expenses in collectives
- Gilman, Hollie Russon. Democracy Reinvented: Participatory Budgeting and Civic Innovation in America. Brookings Institution Press, 2015.
- Lerner, Josh. Everyone Counts: Could Participatory Budgeting Change Democracy?. Cornell University Press, 2014.
- Bauwens, Michel. ”Blueprint for P2P Society: The Partner State & Ethical Economy.“ Shareable. April 7, 2012.
- Kostakis, Vasilis and Michel Bauwens. ”PART THREE: THE HYPOTHETICAL MODEL OF MATURE PEER PRODUCTION: TOWARDS A COMMONS-ORIENTED ECONOMY AND SOCIETY.“ In Network Society and Future Scenarios for a Collaborative Economy. Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
- Restakis, John. ”Civil Power and the Partner State.“ Commons Transition. April 2, 2015.
- Restakis, John. Cooperative Commonwealth & the Partner State. The Next System Project, 2017.
Technologies and "Civic Tech"
- Advocate.io - “the only 'always on' platform that works in both campaign and governance (coming soon) phases of government ensuring continuity amongst supporters and reducing the need to campaign in cycles”
- Airesis - “the social network for e-democracy”
- Decidim - platform of Barcelona city government: Stark, Kevin. ”Barcelona's Decidim Offers Open-Source Platform for Participatory Democracy Projects.“ Shareable. September 5, 2017.
- BoardRoom - “blockchain governance suite” by Consensys based on Ethereum
- “CivicMakers supports the civic technology sector with resources, connections, advocacy and vision, while providing the space for technologists, elected officials, agency staff and citizens of all stripes to come together to co-create a living democracy on planet earth.”
- Collective Decision Engines - “Quadratic Voting is a way for groups to make decisions together that achieves the greatest possible good for the greatest number of group members” - “It was invented by University of Chicago economist and CDE co-founder Glen Weyl, who has proven with University of Chicago statistician Steven Lalley that it is the only optimal and practical way to make collective decisions.”
- Countable - “Get clear, concise summaries of bills going through Congress, see what others think, then take action. Telling your reps how you feel is easier than ever with email and now video messages.”
- Crabgrass - “a software libre web application designed for social networking, group collaboration and network organizing”
- “Frustrated by the endemic corruption and electoral dysfunction of his native Czech Republic, mathematician and anti-corruption activist Karel Janeček began work on a new model voting system in 2012. The system, tested for the first time in October 2013, challenges centuries-old presumptions of how voters can participate in the democratic process.”
- Chafkin, Max. ”Why Y Combinator Funded a Radical Political Party in Argentina.“ Fast Company. March 12, 2015.
- Mancini, Pia. ”How to upgrade democracy for the Internet era.“ TED Talk. October 2014.
- DemTools - “harnesses the power of free, open-source software to provide civic organizations, legislatures, and political parties with the capabilities to effectively engage 21st century citizens and build better democracies”
- Discuto - “enables you to instantly get feedback on your proposal, identify conflicting views, suggest better solutions and find common ground”
- Flux - “a gateway Australians can use, to participate directly in parliament, making the need for trust in elected officials a thing of the past”
- Kaye, Max and Nathan Spataro. Redefining Democracy. January 2017.
- Hyperarchy - “a collaborative decision-making tool based on ranked-pairs voting” designed for GitHub
- InterTwinkles - “a platform built from the ground up to help small democratic groups to do process online. It provides structure to improve the efficiency of specific communication tasks like brainstorming and proposals.”
- LaboDemo - “Consultancy, design of strategies and implementation of digital tools, online participatory processes and collective work through Internet”
- LiquidFeedback - “an open-source software, powering internet platforms for proposition development and decision making”
- Loomio - “free and open source software for anyone, anywhere, to participate in decisions that affect them”
- See also: CoBudget.
- Principled Societies Project - “Developing the LEDDA Economic Direct Democracy Framework”
- Boik, John, Lorenzo Fioramonti, and Gary Milante. ”Rebooting Democracy.“ Foreign Policy. March 16, 2015.
- PublicVotes - “A publicly verifiable Voting System, powered by Smart Contracts”
- pol.is - “helps communities and organizations understand themselves”
- Simonite, Tom. ”The Internet Doesn’t Have to Be Bad for Democracy.“ MIT Technology Review. June 2, 2017.
- United - a crypto-powered “liquid democracy” platform aimed at legislatures
- Xnet - “a group of activists working since 2008 in fields related to: online democracy (participation mechanisms and citizen control of power and institutions); the advocacy of a neutral and free Internet; the free circulation of culture, knowledge and information and the defence of citizen journalism for the right to know, inform and be informed; the technical, communications and legal fight against corruption; and the technopolitics understood as the practice of networking and taking action for empowerment, justice and social transformation.”
- Partido X - “a minimum non-ideological cross-border pact among citizens on the basis of a common roadmap and working method”
- Levi, Simona. ”Working Notes for a R-evolution“ September 20, 2011.
- Levi, Simona. ”Notes for a R-evolution 2 (version 2.0): Stage two: Vices vs. New Tactical Virtues.“ March 22, 2013
- “Your Priorities is a powerful eDemocracy web application designed by the non profit Citizens Foundation to help groups of people speak with one voice.”
- “People submit ideas and debate them in a simple but advanced debate system. The best ideas with the best points for and against rise to the top.”
- Augur - “A Decentrazlied Oracle & Prediction Market Platform”
- Colony - “Colony is infrastructure for the future of work: self-organizing companies that run via software, not paperwork”
- Tezos - rewards community innovation with an on-chain mechanism that seamlessly amends the rules governing its protocol and incentivizes protocol development.”
- Brideshead, Sue. “Could Technology Remove the Politicians From Politics?.” Motherboard. January 2, 2017.
- Simon, Julie et al. Digital Democracy: The Tools Transforming Political Engagement. Nesta, 2017.
- Tauberer, Joshua. “So you want to reform democracy.” Medium. November 22, 2015.
- The Participatory Condition - “The Participatory Condition scrutinizes the very idea of participation in the digital age, from our face-to-face encounters with beings and technologies, to the experiences we share as users, publics and producers, in the flesh and online.” At McGill University.
- RecursivePublic.net - A study of participation on the Internet in various forms.
- Saxena, Shalini. “New democracies need about 8 years for popular support to develop.” Ars Technica. March 10, 2015.
- Understanding Everyday Participation - “This project proposes a radical re-evaluation of the relationship between participation and cultural value.”
- A Charter for Democracy. Guerrilla Translation. Translation posted June 26, 2014.
- A document from the 15M movement
- Bernacchio, Carlo and Robert Couch. “The virtue of participatory governance: a MacIntyrean alternative to shareholder maximization.” Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (August 2015).
- Fish, Adam, Luis Murillo, Lilly Nguyen, Aaron Panofsky, and Christopher Kelty. “Birds of the Internet: Towards a Field Guide to Participation and Governance.” Journal of Cultural Economy 4 (2011).
- Kelty, Christopher et al. “Seven dimensions of contemporary participation disentangled.” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (2014).
- Posner, Eric A. and E. Glen Weyl. Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society. Princeton University Press, 2018.
- Tracy, Karen. Challenges of Ordinary Democracy: A Case Study in Deliberation and Dissent. Penn State University Press, 2010.