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   * Aretaios, Evangelos. "[The Rojava Revolution](https://​www.opendemocracy.net/​arab-awakening/​evangelos-aretaios/​rojava-revolution)."​ _openDemocracy_. March 15, 2015.   * Aretaios, Evangelos. "[The Rojava Revolution](https://​www.opendemocracy.net/​arab-awakening/​evangelos-aretaios/​rojava-revolution)."​ _openDemocracy_. March 15, 2015.
 +    * A long narrative of a reporter'​s visit to Rojava
 +    * "The Rojava model is based on two main pillars which may prove very efficient in the strengthening of democracy in the region. The first pillar is direct democracy as the basis of a communalist system in which citizens participate actively in decision-making and the management of the polis, from the neighborhood to the municipality and as far as the government. The second pillar, equally revolutionary,​ is the denial of the nation state structure and philosophy as such."
 +    * "One close parallel to what is happening today in Rojava could be the civil war in Spain, where the Democrats tried to set up something different. Kurdish women fighters today have much in common with the famous Spanish women fighters, the ‘Mujeres Libres’."​
 +    * "By renouncing the creation of a nation state and by pushing for democratic confederalism,​ what Ocalan has called '​democracy without a state',​ the Rojava experiment is acknowledging that the nation state is not the prerequisite for democracy any more, and by doing so it may be making a historical step in the region."​
 +  * Balanche, Fabrice. "[The Kurdish Path to Socialism in Syria](http://​www.washingtoninstitute.org/​policy-analysis/​view/​the-kurdish-path-to-socialism-in-syria)."​ The Washington Institute. May 16, 2017.
 +    * Mourns that "​attracting investors into such an anti-capitalist system would be difficult. Entrepreneurship is encouraged in Rojava, but only within the framework of cooperatives."​
 +    * The Washington Institute is an AIPAC-backed think tank, so not inclined to be especially sympathetic.
   * Beuret, Nic. "[6 Notes on the Economics of the Rojava Revolution](http://​wire.novaramedia.com/​2015/​02/​6-notes-on-the-economics-of-the-rojava-revolution/​)."​ _Novara Wire_. July 24, 2016.   * Beuret, Nic. "[6 Notes on the Economics of the Rojava Revolution](http://​wire.novaramedia.com/​2015/​02/​6-notes-on-the-economics-of-the-rojava-revolution/​)."​ _Novara Wire_. July 24, 2016.
 +    * "The priority for the various levels of Rojava government is to implement what they call a ‘social economy’ – an economic system built on a series of cooperatives across all economic sectors. The initial objective is to be self-sufficient in meeting basic needs such as food and fuel. At the moment this is less an ideal and more of a necessity as Rojava effectively exists under embargo, with even the most basic of supplies very difficult to import into the region."​
 +    * "Since 2011 the new administration has taken over the land previously held by Syrian government officials and distributed much of it to self-organised farmer cooperatives."​
 +    * "The eventual aim is to build the entire economy of Rojava on the basis of cooperatives or other small economic units, binding them together in a network where the use of money is either minimised or eliminated altogether. … Syrian currency is still used, but while loans can be made interest cannot be charged. There are no banks at the moment, though there is a plan to create banks for holding savings, and private capital will not be banned from investing in the region as long as it adheres to the broader economic principles of the region."​
 +    * "One association that won’t be forming is a police association. The plan in Rojava is to eventually abolish the police, although as the Asayis (civilian security) are accountable to the local councils and not the (non-existent) state, the term ‘police’ is not used."
   * Biehl, Janet. {{:​source:​biehl-rules_of_coops.pdf|Document about the rules for co-ops in Rojava}}. February 2016.   * Biehl, Janet. {{:​source:​biehl-rules_of_coops.pdf|Document about the rules for co-ops in Rojava}}. February 2016.
 +    * A list of the cooperatives in existence at the time, largely agricultural. "​During the early stages of the revolution, some of the economic events were conducted expeditiously. Priority was given to projects dealing with agriculture and infrastructure. Some co-ops were established in the past three years. The development of those co-operatives has boosted the confidence of our citizens."​
 +    * "​People are free to join and become full members of co-ops. Commune members can also join co-ops, once the commune has approved their membership."​
 +    * "Only one person per family can hold a management position in a commune or a co-op. … In addition, there is a separation between management and financial authority, and an individual cannot join both authorities."​
 +    * Detailed rules about the governance and capital limits for cooperatives
   * Biehl, Janet. _Ecology or Catastrophe_.   * Biehl, Janet. _Ecology or Catastrophe_.
     * A blog about the work of Murray Bookchin by his partner, Janet Biehl, who has been to Rojava several times.     * A blog about the work of Murray Bookchin by his partner, Janet Biehl, who has been to Rojava several times.
   * Cemgil, Can and Clemens Hoffmann. "[The '​Rojava Revolution'​ in Syrian Kurdistan: A Model of Development for the Middle East?​](http://​news.infoshop.org/​middle-east/​rojava-revolution-syrian-kurdistan-model-development)."​ _Infoshop News_. December 11, 2016.   * Cemgil, Can and Clemens Hoffmann. "[The '​Rojava Revolution'​ in Syrian Kurdistan: A Model of Development for the Middle East?​](http://​news.infoshop.org/​middle-east/​rojava-revolution-syrian-kurdistan-model-development)."​ _Infoshop News_. December 11, 2016.
   * [Co-operative Economy in Rojava and Bakur](https://​cooperativeeconomy.info/​) - "The Institute for Solidarity Economics and Corporate Watch have put together this website, which collates many of the available articles on the internet about the co-operative economy in the Kurdistan region of the Middle East"   * [Co-operative Economy in Rojava and Bakur](https://​cooperativeeconomy.info/​) - "The Institute for Solidarity Economics and Corporate Watch have put together this website, which collates many of the available articles on the internet about the co-operative economy in the Kurdistan region of the Middle East"
 +    * Includes articles about tons of different kinds of co-ops, including refugee co-ops, reconstruction co-ops, women'​s co-ops, medical co-ops, bakery and poultry co-ops, and many more.
   * De Jong, Alex. "​[Stalinist caterpillar into libertarian butterfly? The evolving ideology of the PKK](https://​libcom.org/​history/​stalinist-caterpillar-libertarian-butterfly-evolving-ideology-pkk-alex-de-jong)."​ Libcom.org. March 11, 2015.   * De Jong, Alex. "​[Stalinist caterpillar into libertarian butterfly? The evolving ideology of the PKK](https://​libcom.org/​history/​stalinist-caterpillar-libertarian-butterfly-evolving-ideology-pkk-alex-de-jong)."​ Libcom.org. March 11, 2015.
   * Enzinna, Wes. "[A Dream of Secular Utopia in ISIS’ Backyard](http://​www.nytimes.com/​2015/​11/​29/​magazine/​a-dream-of-utopia-in-hell.html)."​ _The New York Times Magazine_. November 24, 2015.   * Enzinna, Wes. "[A Dream of Secular Utopia in ISIS’ Backyard](http://​www.nytimes.com/​2015/​11/​29/​magazine/​a-dream-of-utopia-in-hell.html)."​ _The New York Times Magazine_. November 24, 2015.
   * Flint. "[The Experience of Co-operative Societies in Rojava](https://​libcom.org/​library/​experience-co-operative-societies-rojava)."​ Libcom.org. March 28, 2016.   * Flint. "[The Experience of Co-operative Societies in Rojava](https://​libcom.org/​library/​experience-co-operative-societies-rojava)."​ Libcom.org. March 28, 2016.
 +    * A statement from the Economic Committee of TEV-DEM, the umbrella organization for the Rojava Revolution. It's pretty much the same as the document from Biehl above.
   * Greenberg, Andy. "[How an Anarchist Bitcoin Coder Found Himself Fighting ISIS in Syria](https://​www.wired.com/​2017/​03/​anarchist-bitcoin-coder-found-fighting-isis-syria/​)."​ _WIRED_. March 29, 2017.   * Greenberg, Andy. "[How an Anarchist Bitcoin Coder Found Himself Fighting ISIS in Syria](https://​www.wired.com/​2017/​03/​anarchist-bitcoin-coder-found-fighting-isis-syria/​)."​ _WIRED_. March 29, 2017.
 +    * Speaks of "Pablo Prieto, a Spanish biologist based in Rojava who worked with Taaki on the fertilizer production facility. He also says the Rojavan community came to see Taaki as an important member."​
   * Gupta, Rahila. "​[Women’s co-operatives in Rojava](https://​cooperativeeconomy.info/​economy-rojava/​womens-co-operatives-in-rojava/​)."​ _Co-operative Economy_. April 20, 2016.   * Gupta, Rahila. "​[Women’s co-operatives in Rojava](https://​cooperativeeconomy.info/​economy-rojava/​womens-co-operatives-in-rojava/​)."​ _Co-operative Economy_. April 20, 2016.
 +    * "The following article is based on my trip to Rojava in March 2016 where I interviewed Delal Afrin, Head of the Women’s Economic Committee of Kongira Star (a women’s umbrella organisation,​ previously known as Yekitiya Star) and Hediye Yusuf, Co-President of Cizire Canton (now co-president of the Democratic Federation in Rojava and North Syria established on 16 March 2016). We visited four co-operatives in the canton of Cizire."​
 +    * "They do not have the resources to collate statistics and so much of the information feels hazy. For instance, I was unable to discover how much the co-operative sector contributed to the Rojava economy as a whole."​
 +    * The Women'​s Economic Committee "​receives 1-2% of the profit generated by each co-operative."​
 +    * "The Kurdish regions were historically underdeveloped by Bashar al Assad’s regime. Kurdish people were forbidden from planting trees or growing fruits. Mainly wheat was cultivated in Northern Syria. The Kurds were prevented from being economically self-sufficient;​ everything was connected to Damascus."​
   * Harvey, Rebecca. "[A new co-operative economy: Democratic confederalism in Rojava and Bakur](http://​www.thenews.coop/​105985/​)."​ _Co-operative News_. May 31, 2016.   * Harvey, Rebecca. "[A new co-operative economy: Democratic confederalism in Rojava and Bakur](http://​www.thenews.coop/​105985/​)."​ _Co-operative News_. May 31, 2016.
 +    * "The Institute for Solidarity Economics (ISE) and Corporate Watch have launched a website – cooperativeeconomy.info – to provide an English language information resource for the co-operative and solidarity economy movements involved and interested in Rojava and Bakur. The aim is to create an open space where articles and case studies about co-operatives and the wider co-op economy in each area can be collected, making it easier for people to understand and learn about the alternative economic changes happening in the regions."​
   * Hemo, Abdurrahman. "​[Rojava’s Threefold Economy](http://​www.biehlonbookchin.com/​rojavas-threefold-economy/​)."​ _Ecology or Catastrophe_. February 25, 2015.   * Hemo, Abdurrahman. "​[Rojava’s Threefold Economy](http://​www.biehlonbookchin.com/​rojavas-threefold-economy/​)."​ _Ecology or Catastrophe_. February 25, 2015.
   * "[How do cooperatives work in Rojava?​](https://​cooperativeeconomy.info/​how-do-cooperatives-work-in-rojava/​)"​ Cooperative Economy in Rojava and Bakur. November 19, 2016.   * "[How do cooperatives work in Rojava?​](https://​cooperativeeconomy.info/​how-do-cooperatives-work-in-rojava/​)"​ Cooperative Economy in Rojava and Bakur. November 19, 2016.
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   * Knapp, Michael. "​[Rojava – the formation of an economic alternative:​ Private property in the service of all](http://​kurdishquestion.com/​oldsite/​index.php/​kurdistan/​west-kurdistan/​rojava-the-formation-of-an-economic-alternative.html)."​ _Kurdish Question_. February 7, 2016.   * Knapp, Michael. "​[Rojava – the formation of an economic alternative:​ Private property in the service of all](http://​kurdishquestion.com/​oldsite/​index.php/​kurdistan/​west-kurdistan/​rojava-the-formation-of-an-economic-alternative.html)."​ _Kurdish Question_. February 7, 2016.
   * Knapp, Michael, Anja Flach, and Ercan Ayboga (trans. Janet Biehl). "​{{:​source:​biehl-social_economy.docx|The Social Economy}}."​ In _Revolution in Rojava_. Pluto Press, 2016.   * Knapp, Michael, Anja Flach, and Ercan Ayboga (trans. Janet Biehl). "​{{:​source:​biehl-social_economy.docx|The Social Economy}}."​ In _Revolution in Rojava_. Pluto Press, 2016.
-  ​"[Personal Account of Rojava](http://rojavaplan.com/join-3-2-personal-account.html)." Rojava ​Plan+    ​* [The finished book](http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/​books/​book/​distributed/​R/​bo25051714.html) 
-    * Focused on solidarity ​economy+    * "Under the Ba’ath regime, Rojava was one of Syria’s poorest regions, exploited quasi-colonially."​—"​In pre-war Syria, all goods produced in Rojava were shipped outside the region for processing."​ 
 +    * Liberation marked in July 2012. Councils began struggling to meet basic needs and implement price controls. 
 +    * "Soon after the 2012 liberation, Turkey closed all its border crossings to trade"​ 
 +    * "​Because of the Syrian state’s treatment of Rojava, nothing like a modern capitalist economy developed here, and capitalism entrenched itself less in the people’s mentality than elsewhere."​ 
 +    * "The idea of about extending democracy to economic life originated in discussions in TEV-DEM and other parts of the democratic self-government,It would be called the social economy." 
 +    * "About 80 percent of the land in Rojava ​had been nationalized under the Syrian regimeAfter the revolution, this formerly state-owned land was socialized: that is, it was transferred to the communes. “When the regime fled,” Dozdar Hemo told us in Dêrîk, “we transferred the state-owned land—which actually belongs to the society, to the people.” The communes in turn initiated the creation of the social economy by distributing it for agriculture cooperatives,​ especially “for the poor and for families of martyrs,” as Hemo told us." 
 +    * "The first cooperatives were rolled out in 2013. In Cizîrê, cooperatives planted 50,000 fruit trees in 2015 and attempts are being made to diversify agriculture by ecological criteria and to change the wheat monoculture. In Serê Kaniyê, 25,000 dunums of land have been distributed to cooperatives so far. More land will be available when it is cleared of mines."​ 
 +    * "​Cooperatives have been formed for bread-baking,​ textile production, sewing and alterations,​ cheese-making and other dairy production, growing peanuts and lentils, and selling cleaning materials."​ 
 +    * "​Rojava has set a goal of extending cooperatives to as many sectors of the economy ​as possible and of making them, in the near future, the dominant economic form."​ 
 +    * "​Models like the kolkhoz collective farms, or Mondragon, are rejected, just like the capitalist and statist planned ways of economic production. These models are criticized in Rojava as centralist. In Democratic Autonomy, communal control of the economy is the answer—control by the communes, upon which the MGRK council system rests."​ 
 +    * "​Cooperatives must be connected to the council system; they are forbidden by law to become independent enterprises outside democratic control."​ 
 +    * "In Rojava’s social economy, needs are determined not by state or capital but by the communes. Of course, one commune alone is not in a position to cover its own needs, so communes must network through the their economics commissions"​ 
 +    * "​According to the Social Contract, staple foodstuffs and natural resources belong to the people, so their price is kept as low as possible."​ 
 +    * "Even as the US-led coalition supports the YPG/YPJ in its fight against IS, the economic embargo against Rojava remains in place. Almost no humanitarian aid reaches Rojava. The troops of Rojava may be used to counter IS, it seems, but their social and political model is to be starved to death."​
   * Peterson, Matt and Joen Vedel. "​[Autonomy in Kurdistan](http://​thenewinquiry.com/​features/​autonomy-in-kurdistan/​)."​ _The New Inquiry_. February 6, 2015.   * Peterson, Matt and Joen Vedel. "​[Autonomy in Kurdistan](http://​thenewinquiry.com/​features/​autonomy-in-kurdistan/​)."​ _The New Inquiry_. February 6, 2015.
   * "[The '​Rojava Revolution':​ A Reading Guide](https://​libcom.org/​library/​rojava-revolution-reading-guide)."​ Libcom.org. January 1, 2015.   * "[The '​Rojava Revolution':​ A Reading Guide](https://​libcom.org/​library/​rojava-revolution-reading-guide)."​ Libcom.org. January 1, 2015.