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rojava [2017/05/30 18:00]
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   * Enzinna, Wes. "[A Dream of Secular Utopia in ISIS’ Backyard](http://​www.nytimes.com/​2015/​11/​29/​magazine/​a-dream-of-utopia-in-hell.html)."​ _The New York Times Magazine_. November 24, 2015.   * Enzinna, Wes. "[A Dream of Secular Utopia in ISIS’ Backyard](http://​www.nytimes.com/​2015/​11/​29/​magazine/​a-dream-of-utopia-in-hell.html)."​ _The New York Times Magazine_. November 24, 2015.
   * Flint. "[The Experience of Co-operative Societies in Rojava](https://​libcom.org/​library/​experience-co-operative-societies-rojava)."​ Libcom.org. March 28, 2016.   * Flint. "[The Experience of Co-operative Societies in Rojava](https://​libcom.org/​library/​experience-co-operative-societies-rojava)."​ Libcom.org. March 28, 2016.
 +    * A statement from the Economic Committee of TEV-DEM, the umbrella organization for the Rojava Revolution. It's pretty much the same as the document from Biehl above.
   * Greenberg, Andy. "[How an Anarchist Bitcoin Coder Found Himself Fighting ISIS in Syria](https://​www.wired.com/​2017/​03/​anarchist-bitcoin-coder-found-fighting-isis-syria/​)."​ _WIRED_. March 29, 2017.   * Greenberg, Andy. "[How an Anarchist Bitcoin Coder Found Himself Fighting ISIS in Syria](https://​www.wired.com/​2017/​03/​anarchist-bitcoin-coder-found-fighting-isis-syria/​)."​ _WIRED_. March 29, 2017.
 +    * Speaks of "Pablo Prieto, a Spanish biologist based in Rojava who worked with Taaki on the fertilizer production facility. He also says the Rojavan community came to see Taaki as an important member."​
   * Gupta, Rahila. "​[Women’s co-operatives in Rojava](https://​cooperativeeconomy.info/​economy-rojava/​womens-co-operatives-in-rojava/​)."​ _Co-operative Economy_. April 20, 2016.   * Gupta, Rahila. "​[Women’s co-operatives in Rojava](https://​cooperativeeconomy.info/​economy-rojava/​womens-co-operatives-in-rojava/​)."​ _Co-operative Economy_. April 20, 2016.
 +    * "The following article is based on my trip to Rojava in March 2016 where I interviewed Delal Afrin, Head of the Women’s Economic Committee of Kongira Star (a women’s umbrella organisation,​ previously known as Yekitiya Star) and Hediye Yusuf, Co-President of Cizire Canton (now co-president of the Democratic Federation in Rojava and North Syria established on 16 March 2016). We visited four co-operatives in the canton of Cizire."​
 +    * "They do not have the resources to collate statistics and so much of the information feels hazy. For instance, I was unable to discover how much the co-operative sector contributed to the Rojava economy as a whole."​
 +    * The Women'​s Economic Committee "​receives 1-2% of the profit generated by each co-operative."​
 +    * "The Kurdish regions were historically underdeveloped by Bashar al Assad’s regime. Kurdish people were forbidden from planting trees or growing fruits. Mainly wheat was cultivated in Northern Syria. The Kurds were prevented from being economically self-sufficient;​ everything was connected to Damascus."​
   * Harvey, Rebecca. "[A new co-operative economy: Democratic confederalism in Rojava and Bakur](http://​www.thenews.coop/​105985/​)."​ _Co-operative News_. May 31, 2016.   * Harvey, Rebecca. "[A new co-operative economy: Democratic confederalism in Rojava and Bakur](http://​www.thenews.coop/​105985/​)."​ _Co-operative News_. May 31, 2016.
 +    * "The Institute for Solidarity Economics (ISE) and Corporate Watch have launched a website – cooperativeeconomy.info – to provide an English language information resource for the co-operative and solidarity economy movements involved and interested in Rojava and Bakur. The aim is to create an open space where articles and case studies about co-operatives and the wider co-op economy in each area can be collected, making it easier for people to understand and learn about the alternative economic changes happening in the regions."​
   * Hemo, Abdurrahman. "​[Rojava’s Threefold Economy](http://​www.biehlonbookchin.com/​rojavas-threefold-economy/​)."​ _Ecology or Catastrophe_. February 25, 2015.   * Hemo, Abdurrahman. "​[Rojava’s Threefold Economy](http://​www.biehlonbookchin.com/​rojavas-threefold-economy/​)."​ _Ecology or Catastrophe_. February 25, 2015.
   * "[How do cooperatives work in Rojava?​](https://​cooperativeeconomy.info/​how-do-cooperatives-work-in-rojava/​)"​ Cooperative Economy in Rojava and Bakur. November 19, 2016.   * "[How do cooperatives work in Rojava?​](https://​cooperativeeconomy.info/​how-do-cooperatives-work-in-rojava/​)"​ Cooperative Economy in Rojava and Bakur. November 19, 2016.
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   * Knapp, Michael. "​[Rojava – the formation of an economic alternative:​ Private property in the service of all](http://​kurdishquestion.com/​oldsite/​index.php/​kurdistan/​west-kurdistan/​rojava-the-formation-of-an-economic-alternative.html)."​ _Kurdish Question_. February 7, 2016.   * Knapp, Michael. "​[Rojava – the formation of an economic alternative:​ Private property in the service of all](http://​kurdishquestion.com/​oldsite/​index.php/​kurdistan/​west-kurdistan/​rojava-the-formation-of-an-economic-alternative.html)."​ _Kurdish Question_. February 7, 2016.
   * Knapp, Michael, Anja Flach, and Ercan Ayboga (trans. Janet Biehl). "​{{:​source:​biehl-social_economy.docx|The Social Economy}}."​ In _Revolution in Rojava_. Pluto Press, 2016.   * Knapp, Michael, Anja Flach, and Ercan Ayboga (trans. Janet Biehl). "​{{:​source:​biehl-social_economy.docx|The Social Economy}}."​ In _Revolution in Rojava_. Pluto Press, 2016.
-  ​"[Personal Account of Rojava](http://rojavaplan.com/join-3-2-personal-account.html)." Rojava ​Plan+    ​* [The finished book](http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/​books/​book/​distributed/​R/​bo25051714.html) 
-    * Focused on solidarity ​economy+    * "Under the Ba’ath regime, Rojava was one of Syria’s poorest regions, exploited quasi-colonially."​—"​In pre-war Syria, all goods produced in Rojava were shipped outside the region for processing."​ 
 +    * Liberation marked in July 2012. Councils began struggling to meet basic needs and implement price controls. 
 +    * "Soon after the 2012 liberation, Turkey closed all its border crossings to trade"​ 
 +    * "​Because of the Syrian state’s treatment of Rojava, nothing like a modern capitalist economy developed here, and capitalism entrenched itself less in the people’s mentality than elsewhere."​ 
 +    * "The idea of about extending democracy to economic life originated in discussions in TEV-DEM and other parts of the democratic self-government,It would be called the social economy." 
 +    * "About 80 percent of the land in Rojava ​had been nationalized under the Syrian regimeAfter the revolution, this formerly state-owned land was socialized: that is, it was transferred to the communes. “When the regime fled,” Dozdar Hemo told us in Dêrîk, “we transferred the state-owned land—which actually belongs to the society, to the people.” The communes in turn initiated the creation of the social economy by distributing it for agriculture cooperatives,​ especially “for the poor and for families of martyrs,” as Hemo told us." 
 +    * "The first cooperatives were rolled out in 2013. In Cizîrê, cooperatives planted 50,000 fruit trees in 2015 and attempts are being made to diversify agriculture by ecological criteria and to change the wheat monoculture. In Serê Kaniyê, 25,000 dunums of land have been distributed to cooperatives so far. More land will be available when it is cleared of mines."​ 
 +    * "​Cooperatives have been formed for bread-baking,​ textile production, sewing and alterations,​ cheese-making and other dairy production, growing peanuts and lentils, and selling cleaning materials."​ 
 +    * "​Rojava has set a goal of extending cooperatives to as many sectors of the economy ​as possible and of making them, in the near future, the dominant economic form."​ 
 +    * "​Models like the kolkhoz collective farms, or Mondragon, are rejected, just like the capitalist and statist planned ways of economic production. These models are criticized in Rojava as centralist. In Democratic Autonomy, communal control of the economy is the answer—control by the communes, upon which the MGRK council system rests."​ 
 +    * "​Cooperatives must be connected to the council system; they are forbidden by law to become independent enterprises outside democratic control."​ 
 +    * "In Rojava’s social economy, needs are determined not by state or capital but by the communes. Of course, one commune alone is not in a position to cover its own needs, so communes must network through the their economics commissions"​ 
 +    * "​According to the Social Contract, staple foodstuffs and natural resources belong to the people, so their price is kept as low as possible."​ 
 +    * "Even as the US-led coalition supports the YPG/YPJ in its fight against IS, the economic embargo against Rojava remains in place. Almost no humanitarian aid reaches Rojava. The troops of Rojava may be used to counter IS, it seems, but their social and political model is to be starved to death."​
   * Peterson, Matt and Joen Vedel. "​[Autonomy in Kurdistan](http://​thenewinquiry.com/​features/​autonomy-in-kurdistan/​)."​ _The New Inquiry_. February 6, 2015.   * Peterson, Matt and Joen Vedel. "​[Autonomy in Kurdistan](http://​thenewinquiry.com/​features/​autonomy-in-kurdistan/​)."​ _The New Inquiry_. February 6, 2015.
   * "[The '​Rojava Revolution':​ A Reading Guide](https://​libcom.org/​library/​rojava-revolution-reading-guide)."​ Libcom.org. January 1, 2015.   * "[The '​Rojava Revolution':​ A Reading Guide](https://​libcom.org/​library/​rojava-revolution-reading-guide)."​ Libcom.org. January 1, 2015.