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waqf [2015/09/27 18:36]
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-# Waqf 
  
-[Wikipedia](https://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Waqf):​ "is, under the context of '​sadaqah',​ an inalienable religious endowment in Islamic law, typically donating a building or plot of land or even cash for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets."​ The article also includes a comparison between waqf law and English trust law, including a speculation that the latter was influenced by the former. 
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-## Bibliography 
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-  * Hoexter, Miriam. "[Waqf Studies in the Twentieth Century: The State of the Art](http://​awqafsa.org.za/​wp-content/​uploads/​2012/​07/​Waqf-studies-20th-Cent.pdf)."​ _Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient_ 41, no. 4 (1998). 
-  * Kuran, Timur. "[The Provision of Public Goods Under Islamic Law: Origins, Impact, and Limitations of the Waqf System](http://​www.artsrn.ualberta.ca/​amcdouga/​Hist323/​autumn_2010/​additional%20readings/​waqf_public_good.pdf)."​ _Law & Society Review_ 35, no. 4 (2001). 
-    * "it long served as a major instrument for delivering public goods in a decentralized manner"​ - but, the inevitable erosion of donor intent has led to a decline in legitimacy of the system, leading to widespread gov't confiscation in modern period. (841/​abstract) 
-    * known also as "​Islamic trust" or "pious foundation"​ (842) 
-    * "​Originally the assets had to be immovable, although in some places this requirement was eventually relaxed to legitimize what came to be known as a "cash waqf." (842) 
-    * A waqf's activities need not be religious or solely benefit Muslims; only the law protecting them is sacred. 
-    * The example of lighthouses - a public good that waqfs provided 
-    * Argues that the waqf was a means for property-holders to achieve economic security and shield assets from revenue-seeking rulers (843). Also that the waqf may have led to underdevelopment of Islamic world because the lack of flexibility given to managers. There was no "​indigenous"​ ransformation of the waqf to modern corporate status. 
-    * Since flexibility required bending the rules, argues that the waqf structure fostered a culture of corruption (844)