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democracy [2018/03/27 19:17]
ntnsndr
democracy [2018/03/27 19:29] (current)
ntnsndr [President]
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   * Bartoloni-Tuazon,​ Kathleen. _For Fear of an Elective King: George Washington and the Presidential Title Controversy of 1789_. Cornell University Press, 2014.   * Bartoloni-Tuazon,​ Kathleen. _For Fear of an Elective King: George Washington and the Presidential Title Controversy of 1789_. Cornell University Press, 2014.
     * [Introduction](http://​kathleenbartolonituazon.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​2014/​08/​bartoloni-fear-of-elected-crop.pdf)     * [Introduction](http://​kathleenbartolonituazon.com/​wp-content/​uploads/​2014/​08/​bartoloni-fear-of-elected-crop.pdf)
 +      * "In the years preceding the Constitution and its plan for a singular executive, the Continental Congress had functioned with no national executive and the  Confederation ​ Congress ​ had  one  of  no  substantive ​ power. The Continental Congress essentially undertook the “executive and administrative responsibilities ​ that  had  been  exercised ​ by  or  under  the  aegis  of  the  king’s authority,​” while the states retained Parliament’s powers of taxation, trade, and internal governance. The burdens of both executive and administrative responsibilities ​ proved ​ so  onerous ​ that  Congress ​ created ​ executive ​ departments in 1781, an action that resulted in an unforeseen yet inevitable loss of executive ​ will  as  the  departments ​ took  over  the  heavy  lifting ​ of  '​finance,​ foreign affairs, war, and marine matters.” Without the authority to tax or regulate trade, powers that  were still held by the states under the Articles of Confederation, ​ Congress ​ floundered ​ and  became ​ less  effective ​ during ​ the Confederation years. The approach outlined in the Constitution,​ with stronger and largely separate legislative and executive branches, eventually became the lesser of two evils, preferred over the morass that the combined duties in one body had become."​
   * Simmons-Duffin,​ Selena. "[Why President? How The U.S. Named Its Leader](https://​www.npr.org/​2016/​02/​15/​466848438/​why-president-how-the-u-s-named-its-leader)."​ _All Things Considered_. February 15, 2016.   * Simmons-Duffin,​ Selena. "[Why President? How The U.S. Named Its Leader](https://​www.npr.org/​2016/​02/​15/​466848438/​why-president-how-the-u-s-named-its-leader)."​ _All Things Considered_. February 15, 2016.